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Morphine and other opioid analgesics may interfere with normal cognition and motor function when the drugs are used for long-term treatment of pain. We used individually tailored steady-state drug infusions to identify the nature and extent of cognitive and motor effects of the mu-receptor-selective opioid morphine in healthy volunteers. The tailored(More)
We measured the pharmacokinetics of hydromorphone in normal volunteers given three doses of the drug (10, 20, and 40 micrograms/kg) as intravenous 45-s injections on different days. Concentrations of hydromorphone in plasma from serial blood samples were measured by a high-performance liquid chromatography method specific for hydromorphone with a detection(More)
The essence of immersive virtual reality (VR) is the illusion it gives users that they are inside the computer-generated virtual environment. This unusually strong illusion is theorized to contribute to the successful pain reduction observed in burn patients who go into VR during woundcare (www.vrpain.com) and to successful VR exposure therapy for phobias(More)
This study investigated the neural correlates of virtual reality analgesia. Virtual reality significantly reduced subjective pain ratings (i.e. analgesia). Using fMRI, pain-related brain activity was measured for each participant during conditions of no virtual reality and during virtual reality (order randomized). As predicted, virtual reality(More)
BACKGROUND Immersive virtual reality (VR) is a novel form of distraction analgesia, yet its effects on pain-related brain activity when used adjunctively with opioid analgesics are unknown. We used subjective pain ratings and functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure pain and pain-related brain activity in subjects receiving opioid and/or VR(More)
BACKGROUND Despite a large number of clinical investigations in postoperative patients, the pharmacology of epidural fentanyl, alfentanil, and sufentanil has not been well characterized in a human laboratory setting. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, we evaluated analgesia and side effects produced by epidural fentanyl (30 and 100(More)
BACKGROUND Propofol and alfentanil frequently are administered together for intravenous sedation. This study investigated pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions between propofol and alfentanil, at sedative concentrations, with specific regard to effects on ventilation, analgesia, sedation, and nausea. METHODS Ten male volunteers underwent(More)
Excessive pain during medical procedures performed in unanesthetized patients is frequently reported, but can be reduced with virtual reality (VR) distraction. Increasing the person's illusion of going into the virtual world may increase how effectively VR distracts pain. Healthy volunteers aged 18-20 years participated in a double-blind between-groups(More)
We evaluated the ability of fenfluramine, a serotonin releaser, to increase the analgesic potency of morphine administered by tailored i.v. infusion. Ten normal volunteers participated in 4 test sessions, involving different treatments on different days: (1) oral placebo/saline infusion, (2) oral placebo/morphine infusion, (3) oral fenfluramine (60(More)
We evaluated the pharmacokinetics, tolerability, and safety of 1 and 2 mg of intranasal hydromorphone hydrochloride in an open-label, single- and multiple-dose study. This Phase I study was conducted in 24 healthy volunteers (13 men and 11 women). Intranasal doses were delivered as 0.1-mL metered-dose sprays into one or both nostrils for 1- and 2-mg doses,(More)