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The essence of immersive virtual reality (VR) is the illusion it gives users that they are inside the computer-generated virtual environment. This unusually strong illusion is theorized to contribute to the successful pain reduction observed in burn patients who go into VR during woundcare (www.vrpain.com) and to successful VR exposure therapy for phobias(More)
Morphine and other opioid analgesics may interfere with normal cognition and motor function when the drugs are used for long-term treatment of pain. We used individually tailored steady-state drug infusions to identify the nature and extent of cognitive and motor effects of the mu-receptor-selective opioid morphine in healthy volunteers. The tailored(More)
This study investigated the neural correlates of virtual reality analgesia. Virtual reality significantly reduced subjective pain ratings (i.e. analgesia). Using fMRI, pain-related brain activity was measured for each participant during conditions of no virtual reality and during virtual reality (order randomized). As predicted, virtual reality(More)
Excessive pain during medical procedures performed in unanesthetized patients is frequently reported, but can be reduced with virtual reality (VR) distraction. Increasing the person's illusion of going into the virtual world may increase how effectively VR distracts pain. Healthy volunteers aged 18-20 years participated in a double-blind between-groups(More)
BACKGROUND Immersive virtual reality (VR) is a novel form of distraction analgesia, yet its effects on pain-related brain activity when used adjunctively with opioid analgesics are unknown. We used subjective pain ratings and functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure pain and pain-related brain activity in subjects receiving opioid and/or VR(More)
We evaluated the ability of fenfluramine, a serotonin releaser, to increase the analgesic potency of morphine administered by tailored i.v. infusion. Ten normal volunteers participated in 4 test sessions, involving different treatments on different days: (1) oral placebo/saline infusion, (2) oral placebo/morphine infusion, (3) oral fenfluramine (60(More)
The authors evaluated the ability of fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), to enhance the analgesic potency of morphine. Fifteen volunteers participated in this double-blind crossover study. All received combinations of morphine or saline with either fluoxetine 30 mg or placebo. The authors used individual morphine pharmacokinetics to(More)
This study investigated the analgesic effects of three intravenous bolus doses of hydromorphone (10, 20, 40 micrograms/kg) on experimental pain measures in normal humans. Ten healthy male volunteers participated in four study sessions, one for each of the hydromorphone doses as well as a placebo (saline). They received the four treatments in counterbalanced(More)
The primary purpose of this study was to examine whether alprazolam pretreatment can increase the analgesic potency of morphine without increasing opioid side-effect intensities. We employed computer-controlled, variable-rate morphine infusions based on each subject's pharmacokinetic profile for morphine derived from a tailoring bolus dose of the drug(More)
A total of 119 bone marrow transplant patients suffering from oral mucositis pain were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group trial comparing the efficacy of patient-controlled analgesia with morphine, hydromorphone and sufentanil. Patient ratings of pain and side-effects on visual analog scales were gathered daily from the start of(More)