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Tryptophan catabolism is a tolerogenic effector system in regulatory T cell function, yet the general mechanisms whereby tryptophan catabolism affects T cell responses remain unclear. We provide evidence that the short-term, combined effects of tryptophan deprivation and tryptophan catabolites result in GCN2 kinase-dependent down-regulation of the TCR(More)
Radial glial cells and astrocytes function to support the construction and maintenance, respectively, of the cerebral cortex. However, the mechanisms that determine how radial glial cells are established, maintained, and transformed into astrocytes in the cerebral cortex are not well understood. Here, we show that neuregulin-1 (NRG-1) exerts a critical role(More)
Phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF-2 alpha) is typically associated with stress responses and causes a reduction in protein synthesis. However, we found high phosphorylated eIF-2 alpha (eIF-2 alpha[P]) levels in nonstressed pancreata of mice. Administration of glucose stimulated a rapid dephosphorylation of eIF-2 alpha. Among the(More)
Recognizing a deficiency of indispensable amino acids (IAAs) for protein synthesis is vital for dietary selection in metazoans, including humans. Cells in the brain's anterior piriform cortex (APC) are sensitive to IAA deficiency, signaling diet rejection and foraging for complementary IAA sources, but the mechanism is unknown. Here we report that the(More)
In response to environmental stress, cells induce a program of gene expression designed to remedy cellular damage or, alternatively, induce apoptosis. In this report, we explore the role of a family of protein kinases that phosphorylate eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2) in coordinating stress gene responses. We find that expression of activating(More)
Reelin, the product of the reeler gene (D'Arcangelo et Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center al., 1995), acts non cell autonomously (Miyata et al., Harvard Institutes of Medicine 1997), and the protein is synthesized and secreted in ‡ Department of Medicine the cerebral cortex predominantly by the Cajal-Retzius Children's Hospital cell of the marginal zone,(More)
In eukaryotic cells, amino acid depletion reduces translation by a mechanism involving phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor-2 (eIF2). Herein we describe that mice lacking the eIF2 kinase, general control nonderepressible 2 (GCN2) fail to alter the phosphorylation of this initiation factor in liver, and are moribund in response to dietary leucine(More)
OBJECTIVE Loss-of-function mutations in Perk (EIF2AK3) result in permanent neonatal diabetes in humans (Wolcott-Rallison Syndrome) and mice. Previously, we found that diabetes associated with Perk deficiency resulted from insufficient proliferation of beta-cells and from defects in insulin secretion. A substantial fraction of PERK-deficient beta-cells(More)
The GCN2 eIF2alpha kinase is essential for activation of the general amino acid control pathway in yeast when one or more amino acids become limiting for growth. GCN2's function in mammals is unknown, but must differ, since mammals, unlike yeast, can synthesize only half of the standard 20 amino acids. To investigate the function of mammalian GCN2, we have(More)
Loss of function mutations of Perk (eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha kinase 3) in humans and mice cause severe neonatal developmental defects, including diabetes, growth retardation and multiple skeletal dysplasias. Comprehensive analyses on bone tissue, at the cellular and molecular level in PERK-deficient mice demonstrated that neonatal(More)