Barbara C. McGrath

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In response to environmental stress, cells induce a program of gene expression designed to remedy cellular damage or, alternatively, induce apoptosis. In this report, we explore the role of a family of protein kinases that phosphorylate eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2) in coordinating stress gene responses. We find that expression of activating(More)
Phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF-2 alpha) is typically associated with stress responses and causes a reduction in protein synthesis. However, we found high phosphorylated eIF-2 alpha (eIF-2 alpha[P]) levels in nonstressed pancreata of mice. Administration of glucose stimulated a rapid dephosphorylation of eIF-2 alpha. Among the(More)
Tryptophan catabolism is a tolerogenic effector system in regulatory T cell function, yet the general mechanisms whereby tryptophan catabolism affects T cell responses remain unclear. We provide evidence that the short-term, combined effects of tryptophan deprivation and tryptophan catabolites result in GCN2 kinase-dependent down-regulation of the TCR(More)
Radial glial cells and astrocytes function to support the construction and maintenance, respectively, of the cerebral cortex. However, the mechanisms that determine how radial glial cells are established, maintained, and transformed into astrocytes in the cerebral cortex are not well understood. Here, we show that neuregulin-1 (NRG-1) exerts a critical role(More)
Mutations in PERK (EIF2AK3) result in permanent neonatal diabetes as well as several other anomalies that underlie the human Wolcott-Rallison syndrome, and these anomalies are mirrored in Perk knockout mice. To identify the cause of diabetes in PERK-deficient mice, we generated a series of tissue- and cell-specific knockouts of the Perk gene and performed a(More)
Nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) serves to coordinate the transcription of genes in response to diverse environmental stresses. In this report we show that phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2) is fundamental to the process by which many stress signals activate NF-kappaB. Phosphorylation of this translation factor is(More)
Recognizing a deficiency of indispensable amino acids (IAAs) for protein synthesis is vital for dietary selection in metazoans, including humans. Cells in the brain's anterior piriform cortex (APC) are sensitive to IAA deficiency, signaling diet rejection and foraging for complementary IAA sources, but the mechanism is unknown. Here we report that the(More)
The eIF2alpha (eukaryotic initiation factor-2alpha) kinase PERK (doublestranded RNA-activated protein kinase-like ER kinase) is essential for the normal function of highly secretory cells in the pancreas and skeletal system, as well as the UPR (unfolded protein response) in mammalian cells. To delineate the regulatory machinery underlying PERK-dependent(More)
1999), three mutant mice show a remarkably similar cellular phenotype, suggesting that the corresponding proteins represent a biochemical pathway that mediates Lori Dulabon,*‖ Eric C. Olson,†‖ Mary G. Taglienti,‡ Scott Eisenhuth,* Barbara McGrath,* Christopher A. Walsh,† proper formation of cerebral cortical lamination. In the Jordan A. Kreidberg,‡ and E.(More)
In eukaryotic cells, amino acid depletion reduces translation by a mechanism involving phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor-2 (eIF2). Herein we describe that mice lacking the eIF2 kinase, general control nonderepressible 2 (GCN2) fail to alter the phosphorylation of this initiation factor in liver, and are moribund in response to dietary leucine(More)