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Recent reports have suggested that the use of alcohol or drugs is related to sexual behavior that is high risk for HIV infection. If substance use leads to unsafe sexual activity, understanding the dynamics of this relationship can contribute to research and preventive and educational efforts to contain the spread of AIDS. In this article, we review(More)
Discusses substantive issues in predicting drinking patterns from expectancies, as well as issues of content and measurement of the scales developed to measure these expectancies. In recent years, much research has suggested that alcohol expectancies--or the beliefs that individuals hold about the effects of alcohol on their behavior, moods, and(More)
CONTEXT Alcohol consumption often has been cited as increasing adolescents' risk of HIV, and several studies have shown positive relationships between drinking and risky sexual behavior among adolescents. Because most of these studies used global measures of drinking and risky sex, and conducted comparisons across persons, they could not determine whether(More)
AIMS Because expectancies about the effects of alcohol change as drinking experience is accumulated, it is likely that the relationship of expectancy to drinking will differ with age. In this study, we examine the prediction of drinking behavior from positive and negative outcome expectancy at different ages. DESIGN Data were collected as part of the(More)
Seventy-one subjects with various levels of drinking experience completed a computerized semantic priming task. Prime phrases (describing positive outcomes of drinking alcohol or neutral phrases) were presented immediately before a target word (either alcohol-related or not). The results replicated earlier basic research examining the effects of(More)
Recent psychosocial research on alcohol expectancies--beliefs about the effects of alcohol on behavior, moods and emotions--has suggested that these expectancies mediate not only decisions about drinking but the alcohol effects displayed by those who have been drinking. Results of a study of drinking and sexual behavior showed that individuals of different(More)
Although it is often assumed that drinking alcohol interferes with condom use, most studies on this topic do not meet the conditions required for causal interpretation. We examined the association of drinking to condom use using data from diaries of alcohol use and sexual encounters, collected over 8 weeks from college students and clients of a sexually(More)
Theories of cognitive processes and risk behavior have not usually addressed spontaneous forms of cognition that may co-occur with, or possibly influence, behavior. This study evaluated whether measures of spontaneous cognition independently predict HIV risk behavior tendencies. Whereas a trait-centered theory suggests that spontaneous cognitions are a(More)
Daily measurements of drinking are used to measure alcohol consumption, validate retrospective questionnaires, and examine associations between drinking and other behaviors. The advantages of using daily reports include reducing retrospective biases and forgetting of drinking occasions; disadvantages include increased costs and potential for reactivity.(More)
A comparison of the factor structures of alcohol effect expectancies of adults (aged 18 and older) and adolescents (aged 12-17) was conducted. Data were from a nationally representative sample of United States residents. Two factors were extracted for the adults, and three for the adolescents. General positive and negative factors were common to each(More)