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Maedi visna virus and caprine arthritis encephalitis virus are closely related retroviruses that cause chronic inflammatory disease in small ruminants. The infections are characterised by insidious onset and slow progression. Diagnosis of infection is usually by serological testing. A variety of assays are available for this purpose, though the relative(More)
The small ruminant lentiviruses include the prototype for the genus, visna-maedi virus (VMV) as well as caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV). Infection of sheep or goats with these viruses causes slow, progressive, inflammatory pathology in many tissues, but the most common clinical signs result from pathology in the lung, mammary gland, central(More)
Gene gun mucosal DNA immunization of sheep with a plasmid expressing the env gene of Maedi-Visna virus (MVV) was used to examine the protection against MVV infection in sheep from a naturally infected flock. For immunization, sheep were primed with a pcDNA plasmid (pcDNA-env) encoding the Env glycoproteins of MVV and boosted with combined pcDNA-env and(More)
CD8(+) cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses have been shown to be important in the control of human and simian immunodeficiency virus infections. Infection of sheep with visna/maedi virus (VISNA), a related lentivirus, induces specific CD8(+) CTL in vivo, but the specific viral proteins recognized are not known. To determine which VISNA antigens were(More)
To determine whether systemic immunization with plasmid DNA and virus vector against visna/maedi virus (VMV) would induce protective immune responses, sheep were immunized with VMV gag and/or env sequences using particle-mediated epidermal bombardment and injection of recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara. The results showed that immunization induced both(More)
Small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV) are classical slow retroviruses causing chronic inflammatory disease in a variety of target organs. The routes of transmission have been investigated and a large body of evidence has accumulated over many years. The main routes are through ingestion of infected colostrum and/or milk, or through inhalation of respiratory(More)
We have isolated a maedi-visna-like virus from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of a British sheep displaying symptoms of arthritis and pneumonia. After brief passage in fibroblasts this virus (designated EV1) was used to infect choroid plexus cells. cDNA clones of the virus were prepared from these cells and sequenced. Gaps between non-overlapping(More)
In this study we describe for the first time the dynamics of the expression of the cytokines, IL-1beta, IL-12p40, TNFalpha in ovine dendritic cells and macrophages after LPS stimulation. Real time RT-PCR was used for the quantitation of these cytokines and IL-4 and IFNgamma as well as two potential housekeeping genes (HKG), ATPase and GAPDH, in mRNAs from(More)
Infections caused by lentiviruses, including human immunodeficiency virus, are characterized by slowly progressive disease in the presence of a virus-specific immune response. The earliest events in the virus-host interaction are likely to be important in determining disease establishment and progression, and the kinetics of these early events following(More)
The replication of EV1, a British isolate of maedi visna virus (MVV), in macrophages has not previously been studied. We therefore used transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM and SEM respectively) to compare the replication of EV1 in macrophages versus skin cell lines. Monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM), alveolar macrophages (AM) and skin cell(More)