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Seventy-nine cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors were measured by protein array analysis in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with meningitis and controls. Several factors were found to be regulated, which have not been studied in the CNS before, e.g., macrophage inflammatory protein-1delta (CCL15) and neutrophil-activating peptide-2 (CXCL7). In(More)
Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis causes brain damage through inflammation-related pathways whose identity and mechanisms of action are yet unclear. We previously identified caspase-1, which activates precursor IL-1 type cytokines, as a central mediator of inflammation in pneumococcal meningitis. In this study, we demonstrate that lack of the inflammasome(More)
Using protein expression profiling, the authors identified an upregulation of the chemokine B lymphocyte chemoattractant (BLC) in the CSF of patients with neuroborreliosis but not in patients with noninflammatory and various other inflammatory neurologic diseases. This upregulation was confirmed by ELISA, showing increased BLC levels in every(More)
Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) is an essential intracellular signal transducer in Toll-like receptor (TLR) and interleukin (IL)-1 receptor family member-mediated cell activation. In order to characterize the role of MyD88 in pneumococcal meningitis we used gene-targeted mice lacking functional MyD88 expression. At 24 h after intracisternal(More)
Heterologous expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR)2 and CD14 in Chinese hamster ovary fibroblasts was reported to confer responsiveness to pneumococcal peptidoglycan. The present study characterized the role of TLR2 in the host immune response and clinical course of pneumococcal meningitis. Pneumococcal infection of mice caused a significant increase in(More)
Caspase 1 plays a pivotal role in generating mature cytokine interleukin-1beta. Interleukin-1beta is implicated as a mediator of pneumococcal meningitis, both in experimental models and in humans. We demonstrated here that (1) Caspase 1 mRNA and protein expression is upregulated in the brain during experimental pneumococcal meningitis, and (2) Caspase 1(More)
Previous studies suggest that the complement system can contribute to limiting pneumococcal outgrowth within the CNS. In this study, we evaluated the role of the complement system in the activation of the innate immune response and the development of the prognosis-relevant intracranial complications in a murine model of pneumococcal meningitis. Thereby, we(More)
Neutrophilic inflammation, which often persists over days despite appropriate antibiotic therapy, contributes substantially to brain damage in bacterial meningitis. We hypothesized that persistent inflammation is the consequence of a vicious cycle in which inflammation-induced cell injury leads to the release of endogenous danger molecules (e.g. high(More)
BACKGROUND Hearing loss is a frequent long-term complication of pneumococcal meningitis (PM). Its main pathological correlate is damage to the organ of Corti and loss of spiral ganglion neurons. The only current treatment option is cochlear implants which require surviving neurons. Here, we investigated the impact of systemically applied neurotrophin-3(More)
BACKGROUND The definite diagnosis of acute Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) requires detection of an increased Borrelia burgdorferi-specific antibody index (AI). The B burgdorferi AI, however, is negative in up to 20% of patients with early LNB and can remain elevated for years after adequate therapy; both of these factors can make the diagnosis difficult.(More)