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Seventy-nine cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors were measured by protein array analysis in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with meningitis and controls. Several factors were found to be regulated, which have not been studied in the CNS before, e.g., macrophage inflammatory protein-1delta (CCL15) and neutrophil-activating peptide-2 (CXCL7). In(More)
Using protein expression profiling, the authors identified an upregulation of the chemokine B lymphocyte chemoattractant (BLC) in the CSF of patients with neuroborreliosis but not in patients with noninflammatory and various other inflammatory neurologic diseases. This upregulation was confirmed by ELISA, showing increased BLC levels in every(More)
Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) is an essential intracellular signal transducer in Toll-like receptor (TLR) and interleukin (IL)-1 receptor family member-mediated cell activation. In order to characterize the role of MyD88 in pneumococcal meningitis we used gene-targeted mice lacking functional MyD88 expression. At 24 h after intracisternal(More)
Caspase 1 plays a pivotal role in generating mature cytokine interleukin-1beta. Interleukin-1beta is implicated as a mediator of pneumococcal meningitis, both in experimental models and in humans. We demonstrated here that (1) Caspase 1 mRNA and protein expression is upregulated in the brain during experimental pneumococcal meningitis, and (2) Caspase 1(More)
Neutrophilic inflammation, which often persists over days despite appropriate antibiotic therapy, contributes substantially to brain damage in bacterial meningitis. We hypothesized that persistent inflammation is the consequence of a vicious cycle in which inflammation-induced cell injury leads to the release of endogenous danger molecules (e.g. high(More)
BACKGROUND Hearing loss is a frequent long-term complication of pneumococcal meningitis (PM). Its main pathological correlate is damage to the organ of Corti and loss of spiral ganglion neurons. The only current treatment option is cochlear implants which require surviving neurons. Here, we investigated the impact of systemically applied neurotrophin-3(More)
BACKGROUND The definite diagnosis of acute Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) requires detection of an increased Borrelia burgdorferi-specific antibody index (AI). The B burgdorferi AI, however, is negative in up to 20% of patients with early LNB and can remain elevated for years after adequate therapy; both of these factors can make the diagnosis difficult.(More)
Fas (CD95) and Fas ligand (FasL, CD95L) have been implicated to be involved in the acute inflammatory response by attracting neutrophils and regulating their survival. Increased levels of soluble Fas and FasL are found in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples of patients with bacterial meningitis but not in controls. Functional FasL (gld)- or Fas(More)
There is substantial evidence, implicating extracellular matrix (ECM) regulating enzymes in the pathogenesis of motor neuron degeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The most important ECM-degrading proteases are serine proteases (plasminogen activators, PA) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Since the role of MMPs in ALS has been addressed(More)
We previously identified CCL20 as an early chemokine in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with pneumococcal meningitis but its functional relevance was unknown. Here we studied the role of CCL20 and its receptor CCR6 in pneumococcal meningitis. In a prospective nationwide study, CCL20 levels were significantly elevated in the CSF of patients with(More)