Learn More
Seventy-nine cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors were measured by protein array analysis in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with meningitis and controls. Several factors were found to be regulated, which have not been studied in the CNS before, e.g., macrophage inflammatory protein-1delta (CCL15) and neutrophil-activating peptide-2 (CXCL7). In(More)
Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) is an essential intracellular signal transducer in Toll-like receptor (TLR) and interleukin (IL)-1 receptor family member-mediated cell activation. In order to characterize the role of MyD88 in pneumococcal meningitis we used gene-targeted mice lacking functional MyD88 expression. At 24 h after intracisternal(More)
Caspase 1 plays a pivotal role in generating mature cytokine interleukin-1beta. Interleukin-1beta is implicated as a mediator of pneumococcal meningitis, both in experimental models and in humans. We demonstrated here that (1) Caspase 1 mRNA and protein expression is upregulated in the brain during experimental pneumococcal meningitis, and (2) Caspase 1(More)
Neutrophilic inflammation, which often persists over days despite appropriate antibiotic therapy, contributes substantially to brain damage in bacterial meningitis. We hypothesized that persistent inflammation is the consequence of a vicious cycle in which inflammation-induced cell injury leads to the release of endogenous danger molecules (e.g. high(More)
BACKGROUND Hearing loss is a frequent long-term complication of pneumococcal meningitis (PM). Its main pathological correlate is damage to the organ of Corti and loss of spiral ganglion neurons. The only current treatment option is cochlear implants which require surviving neurons. Here, we investigated the impact of systemically applied neurotrophin-3(More)
Fas (CD95) and Fas ligand (FasL, CD95L) have been implicated to be involved in the acute inflammatory response by attracting neutrophils and regulating their survival. Increased levels of soluble Fas and FasL are found in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples of patients with bacterial meningitis but not in controls. Functional FasL (gld)- or Fas(More)
We previously identified CCL20 as an early chemokine in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with pneumococcal meningitis but its functional relevance was unknown. Here we studied the role of CCL20 and its receptor CCR6 in pneumococcal meningitis. In a prospective nationwide study, CCL20 levels were significantly elevated in the CSF of patients with(More)
Increased vascular permeability causing vasogenic brain edema is characteristic for many acute neurological diseases such as stroke, brain trauma, and meningitis. Src family kinases, especially c-Src, play an important role in regulating blood-brain barrier permeability in response to VEGF, but also mediate leukocyte function and cytokine signalling. Here(More)
  • 1