Learn More
The present study assessed the role of PARP [poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase] activation in experimental pneumococcal meningitis. Mice with a targeted disruption of the PARP 1 gene were protected against meningitis-associated central nervous system complications including blood-brain barrier breaching and increase in intracranial pressure.(More)
BACKGROUND The definite diagnosis of acute Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) requires detection of an increased Borrelia burgdorferi-specific antibody index (AI). The B burgdorferi AI, however, is negative in up to 20% of patients with early LNB and can remain elevated for years after adequate therapy; both of these factors can make the diagnosis difficult.(More)
Seventy-nine cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors were measured by protein array analysis in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with meningitis and controls. Several factors were found to be regulated, which have not been studied in the CNS before, e.g., macrophage inflammatory protein-1delta (CCL15) and neutrophil-activating peptide-2 (CXCL7). In(More)
In this study, we investigated cytokine expression during experimental pneumococcal meningitis. Mice were intracisternally infected with Streptococcus pneumoniae and treated with ceftriaxone starting at 24 h after infection. At different time points before and after antibiotic therapy, the cytokine expression pattern was determined in mouse brains using(More)
The definitive diagnosis of acute neuroborreliosis (NB) is based upon the presence of lymphomonocytic CSF pleocytosis and intrathecal Borrelia burgdorferi (B.b.)-specific antibody production (expressed by an antibody index of >2). However, the latter might be absent in early stages of the disease. Now a recently discovered additional CSF marker-the cytokine(More)
Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis causes brain damage through inflammation-related pathways whose identity and mechanisms of action are yet unclear. We previously identified caspase-1, which activates precursor IL-1 type cytokines, as a central mediator of inflammation in pneumococcal meningitis. In this study, we demonstrate that lack of the inflammasome(More)
Using protein expression profiling, the authors identified an upregulation of the chemokine B lymphocyte chemoattractant (BLC) in the CSF of patients with neuroborreliosis but not in patients with noninflammatory and various other inflammatory neurologic diseases. This upregulation was confirmed by ELISA, showing increased BLC levels in every(More)
Heterologous expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR)2 and CD14 in Chinese hamster ovary fibroblasts was reported to confer responsiveness to pneumococcal peptidoglycan. The present study characterized the role of TLR2 in the host immune response and clinical course of pneumococcal meningitis. Pneumococcal infection of mice caused a significant increase in(More)
Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) is an essential intracellular signal transducer in Toll-like receptor (TLR) and interleukin (IL)-1 receptor family member-mediated cell activation. In order to characterize the role of MyD88 in pneumococcal meningitis we used gene-targeted mice lacking functional MyD88 expression. At 24 h after intracisternal(More)
Endogenous molecules released from disrupted cells and extracellular matrix degradation products activate Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and, thus, might contribute to immune activation after tissue injury. Here, we show that aseptic, cold-induced cortical injury triggered an acute immune response that involves increased production of multiple(More)