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Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-specific CD8 cell exhaustion may represent a mechanism of HCV persistence. The inhibitory receptor PD-1 has been reported to be up-regulated in exhausted CD8 cells. Therefore, we studied PD-1 expression longitudinally during acute HCV infection. Most HCV-specific CD8 cells expressed PD-1 at the time of acute illness, irrespective of(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Natural killer (NK) cells are essential early after infection, not only for viral containment but also for timely and efficient induction of adaptive responses. An inhibitory effect of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-E2 proteins on NK cells has been reported, but the features of NK cell responses in the acute phase of hepatitis C are still largely(More)
Dysfunctional CD8+ T cells present in chronic virus infections can express programmed death 1 (PD-1) molecules, and the inhibition of the engagement of PD-1 with its ligand (PD-L1) has been reported to enhance the antiviral function of these T cells. We took advantage of the wide fluctuations in levels of viremia which are typical of chronic hepatitis B(More)
A timely, efficient, and coordinated activation of both CD4 and CD8 T cell subsets following HCV infection is believed to be essential for HCV control. However, to what extent a failure of the individual T cell subsets can contribute to the high propensity of HCV to persist is still largely undefined. To address this issue, we analyzed the breadth, vigor,(More)
The aim of the present study was to clarify whether factor H mutations were involved in genetic predisposition to hemolytic uremic syndrome, by performing linkage and mutation studies in a large number of patients from those referred to the Italian Registry for Recurrent and Familial HUS/TTP. PCR and Western blot analyses were conducted to characterize the(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) can cause liver disease of variable severity. Expansion of preexisting memory CD8 T cells by cross-reactivity with a new heterologous virus infection has been shown in mice to shape the repertoire of the primary response and to influence virus-related immunopathology. To determine whether this mechanism can influence the course of(More)
We investigated here the changes in von Willebrand factor (vWF) multimers in recurrent, sporadic and familial forms of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS)/thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) to see whether they are actually proteolyzed in vivo in these patients. Molecular determinants of fragments in vWF were also characterized to identify possible sites(More)
Detection of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-specific T cell response after exposure to hepatitis C in anti-HCV-positive or anti-HCV-negative patients has been associated with an ability to successfully control the infection. However, cross-reactivity between common human pathogens and HCV sequences has been demonstrated. The aim of this study was to investigate(More)
The newborn immune system is characterized by an impaired Th1-associated immune response. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmitted from infected mothers to newborns is thought to exploit the newborns' immune system immaturity by inducing a state of immune tolerance that facilitates HBV persistence. Contrary to this hypothesis, we demonstrate here that HBV(More)
To characterize acute-phase hepatitis B virus (HBV)-specific T cell responses associated with self-limited and persistent HBV infections, we compared a patient with acute HBV/HCV coinfection, who was able to control HCV but developed chronic hepatitis B, with patients who resolved acute HBV infection spontaneously. Acute-phase CD4 responses were efficient(More)