Barbara A Rakel

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The UIHC Department of Nursing is nationally known for its work on use of research to improve patient care. This reputation is attributable to staff members who continue to question "how can we improve practice?" or "what does the latest evidence tell us about this patient problem?" and to administrators who support, value, and reward EBP. The revisions(More)
UNLABELLED Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is an electrophysical modality used for pain management. This study investigated the dose response of different TENS intensities on experimentally induced pressure pain. One hundred and thirty TENS naïve healthy individuals (18-64 years old; 65 males, 65 females) were randomly allocated to 5(More)
This study tested the effectiveness of episodic transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) as a supplement to pharmacologic analgesia on pain with movement and at rest after abdominal surgery and evaluated whether its use during walking and vital capacity maneuvers enhances performance of these activities. TENS, with a modulated frequency, intensity(More)
UNLABELLED Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is a noninvasive technique used for pain modulation. During application of TENS there is a fading of current sensation. Textbooks of electrophysical agents recommend that pulse amplitude should be constantly adjusted. This seems to be accepted clinically despite the fact that there is no direct(More)
UNLABELLED This study compared a new transient sham transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) that delivers current for 45 seconds to an inactive sham and active TENS to determine the degree of blinding and influence on pain reduction. Pressure-pain thresholds (PPT), heat-pain thresholds (HPT), and pain intensities to tonic heat and pressure were(More)
BACKGROUND Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is commonly used for the management of pain; however, its effects on several pain and function measures are unclear. OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of high-frequency TENS (HF-TENS) and low-frequency TENS (LF-TENS) on several outcome measures (pain at rest,(More)
Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is a nonpharmacologic treatment for pain relief. TENS has been used to treat a variety of painful conditions. This review updates the basic and clinical science regarding the use of TENS that has been published in the past 3 years (ie, 2005-2008). Basic science studies using animal models of inflammation(More)
Total knee arthroplasty has provided dramatic improvements in function and pain for the majority of patients with knee arthritis, yet a significant proportion of patients remain dissatisfied with their results. We performed a prospective analysis of 215 patients undergoing TKA who underwent a comprehensive array of evaluations to discover whether any(More)
The purpose of this meta-analysis was to estimate the effects of heparin flush and saline flush solutions on maintaining patency, preventing phlebitis, and increasing duration in peripheral heparin locks. The average effect size (d value) across 15 studies with a total sample size of 3,490 was .0573 for patency (clotting). The 95% credibility interval(More)
Split-thickness skin grafting (STSG) is a frequently used reconstructive technique but is associated with a large variation in practice. The purposes of this article are to integrate and synthesize the available empirical evidence regarding STSG donor site dressings, identify which dressings are associated with the best outcomes, and provide practice(More)