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Motions of membrane-associated proteins within and between membranes are essential for many cellular functions. We describe the application of fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) beam-size analysis to investigate the role of palmitoylation in the membrane targeting and membrane association dynamics of H-Ras. The method described distinguishes(More)
The microlocalization of Ras proteins to different microdomains of the plasma membrane is critical for signaling specificity. Here we examine the complex membrane interactions of H-ras with a combination of FRAP on live cells to measure membrane affinity and electron microscopy of intact plasma membrane sheets to spatially map microdomains. We show that(More)
The organization of Ras proteins into nanoclusters on the inner plasma membrane is essential for Ras signal transduction, but the mechanisms that drive nanoclustering are unknown. Here we show that epidermal growth factor receptor activation stimulates the formation of H-Ras.GTP-Galectin-1 (Gal-1) complexes on the plasma membrane that are then assembled(More)
Messenger RNA-binding translational regulatory proteins determine in large part the spectrum of transcripts that are translated under specific cellular contexts. Y-box binding protein-1 (YB-1) is a conserved eukaryotic translational regulator that is implicated in cancer progression. To identify specific proteins that are translationally regulated by YB-1,(More)
Metabolic adaptation is essential for cell survival during nutrient deprivation. We report that eukaryotic elongation factor 2 kinase (eEF2K), which is activated by AMP-kinase (AMPK), confers cell survival under acute nutrient depletion by blocking translation elongation. Tumor cells exploit this pathway to adapt to nutrient deprivation by reactivating the(More)
The spatial organization of K-Ras proteins into nanoclusters on the plasma membrane is essential for high-fidelity signal transduction. The mechanism underlying K-Ras nanoclustering is unknown. We show here that K-Ras.GTP recruits Galectin-3 (Gal-3) from the cytosol to the plasma membrane where it becomes an integral nanocluster component. Importantly, we(More)
Defense mechanisms of plants against pathogens often entail cell wall strengthening, ethylene biosynthesis, expression of pathogen-related proteins and hypersensitive responses (HR). Pathogen-derived elicitors trigger these defense responses. The Elicitor Ethylene-inducing Xylanase (EIX) elicits HR and other plant defense responses in some tobacco and(More)
Tumor cells are continually subjected to diverse stress conditions of the tumor microenvironment, including hypoxia, nutrient deprivation, and oxidative or genotoxic stress. Tumor cells must evolve adaptive mechanisms to survive these conditions to ultimately drive tumor progression. Tight control of mRNA translation is critical for this response and the(More)
Ras biological activity necessitates membrane anchorage that depends on the Ras farnesyl moiety and is strengthened by Ras/galectin-1 interactions. We identified a hydrophobic pocket in galectin-1, analogous to the Cdc42 geranylgeranyl-binding cavity in RhoGDI, possessing homologous isoprenoid-binding residues, including the critical L11, whose RhoGDI L77(More)
Oxidative stress plays a key role in late onset diseases including cancer and neurodegenerative diseases such as Huntington disease. Therefore, uncovering regulators of the antioxidant stress responses is important for understanding the course of these diseases. Indeed, the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2), a master regulator of the(More)