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Motions of membrane-associated proteins within and between membranes are essential for many cellular functions. We describe the application of fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) beam-size analysis to investigate the role of palmitoylation in the membrane targeting and membrane association dynamics of H-Ras. The method described distinguishes(More)
The microlocalization of Ras proteins to different microdomains of the plasma membrane is critical for signaling specificity. Here we examine the complex membrane interactions of H-ras with a combination of FRAP on live cells to measure membrane affinity and electron microscopy of intact plasma membrane sheets to spatially map microdomains. We show that(More)
Metabolic adaptation is essential for cell survival during nutrient deprivation. We report that eukaryotic elongation factor 2 kinase (eEF2K), which is activated by AMP-kinase (AMPK), confers cell survival under acute nutrient depletion by blocking translation elongation. Tumor cells exploit this pathway to adapt to nutrient deprivation by reactivating the(More)
Tumor cells are continually subjected to diverse stress conditions of the tumor microenvironment, including hypoxia, nutrient deprivation, and oxidative or genotoxic stress. Tumor cells must evolve adaptive mechanisms to survive these conditions to ultimately drive tumor progression. Tight control of mRNA translation is critical for this response and the(More)
Ras biological activity necessitates membrane anchorage that depends on the Ras farnesyl moiety and is strengthened by Ras/galectin-1 interactions. We identified a hydrophobic pocket in galectin-1, analogous to the Cdc42 geranylgeranyl-binding cavity in RhoGDI, possessing homologous isoprenoid-binding residues, including the critical L11, whose RhoGDI L77(More)
Signaling proteins often engage in multiple protein-protein interactions that are dependent upon cellular context. Little is known about how signaling proteins select their interacting targets. The Ras GTPase is an example of a protein that can activate a large number of distinct and interconnected downstream signaling pathways. Hyperactive forms of Ras are(More)
H-ras is anchored to the plasma membrane by two palmitoylated cysteine residues, Cys181 and Cys184, operating in concert with a C-terminal S-farnesyl cysteine carboxymethylester. Here we demonstrate that the two palmitates serve distinct biological roles. Monopalmitoylation of Cys181 is required and sufficient for efficient trafficking of H-ras to the(More)
The organization of Ras proteins into nanoclusters on the inner plasma membrane is essential for Ras signal transduction, but the mechanisms that drive nanoclustering are unknown. Here we show that epidermal growth factor receptor activation stimulates the formation of H-Ras.GTP-Galectin-1 (Gal-1) complexes on the plasma membrane that are then assembled(More)
Chronic activation of Ras proteins by mutational activation or by growth factor stimulation is a common occurrence in many human cancers and was shown to induce and be required for tumor growth. Even if additional genetic defects are present, "correction" of the Ras defect has been shown to reverse Ras-dependent tumorigenesis. One way to block Ras protein(More)
The spatial organization of K-Ras proteins into nanoclusters on the plasma membrane is essential for high-fidelity signal transduction. The mechanism underlying K-Ras nanoclustering is unknown. We show here that K-Ras.GTP recruits Galectin-3 (Gal-3) from the cytosol to the plasma membrane where it becomes an integral nanocluster component. Importantly, we(More)