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The microlocalization of Ras proteins to different microdomains of the plasma membrane is critical for signaling specificity. Here we examine the complex membrane interactions of H-ras with a combination of FRAP on live cells to measure membrane affinity and electron microscopy of intact plasma membrane sheets to spatially map microdomains. We show that(More)
Metabolic adaptation is essential for cell survival during nutrient deprivation. We report that eukaryotic elongation factor 2 kinase (eEF2K), which is activated by AMP-kinase (AMPK), confers cell survival under acute nutrient depletion by blocking translation elongation. Tumor cells exploit this pathway to adapt to nutrient deprivation by reactivating the(More)
The spatial organization of K-Ras proteins into nanoclusters on the plasma membrane is essential for high-fidelity signal transduction. The mechanism underlying K-Ras nanoclustering is unknown. We show here that K-Ras.GTP recruits Galectin-3 (Gal-3) from the cytosol to the plasma membrane where it becomes an integral nanocluster component. Importantly, we(More)
Ras biological activity necessitates membrane anchorage that depends on the Ras farnesyl moiety and is strengthened by Ras/galectin-1 interactions. We identified a hydrophobic pocket in galectin-1, analogous to the Cdc42 geranylgeranyl-binding cavity in RhoGDI, possessing homologous isoprenoid-binding residues, including the critical L11, whose RhoGDI L77(More)
1. Ras signaling and oncogenesis depend on the dynamic interplay of Ras with distinctive plasma membrane (PM) microdomains and various intracellular compartments. Such interaction is dictated by individual elements in the carboxy-terminal domain of the Ras proteins, including a farnesyl isoprenoid group, sequences in the hypervariable region (hvr)-linker,(More)
Inhibition of distinct ubiquitin E3 ligases might represent a powerful therapeutic tool. ITCH is a HECT domain-containing E3 ligase that promotes the ubiquitylation and degradation of several proteins, including p73, p63, c-Jun, JunB, Notch and c-FLIP, thus affecting cell fate. Accordingly, ITCH depletion potentiates the effect of chemotherapeutic drugs,(More)
The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) plays a role in the regulation of most cellular pathways, and its deregulation has been implicated in a wide range of human pathologies that include cancer, neurodegenerative and immunological disorders and viral infections. Targeting the UPS by small molecular regulators thus provides an opportunity for the development(More)
Immune cells establish dynamic adhesive cell-cell interactions at a specific contact region, termed the immunological synapse (IS). Intriguing features of the IS are the formation of regions of plasma membrane fusion and the intercellular exchange of membrane fragments between the conjugated cells. It is not known whether upon IS formation, intact(More)
Defense mechanisms of plants against pathogens often entail cell wall strengthening, ethylene biosynthesis, expression of pathogen-related proteins and hypersensitive responses (HR). Pathogen-derived elicitors trigger these defense responses. The Elicitor Ethylene-inducing Xylanase (EIX) elicits HR and other plant defense responses in some tobacco and(More)