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Intrusion detection systems rely on a wide variety of observable data to distinguish between legitimate and illegitimate activities. In this paper we study one such observable— sequences of system calls into the kernel of an operating system. Using system-call data sets generated by several different programs, we compare the ability of different data(More)
The blind source separation problem is to extract the underlying source signals from a set of linear mixtures, where the mixing matrix is unknown. This situation is common in acoustics, radio, medical signal and image processing, hyperspectral imaging, and other areas. We suggest a two-stage separation process: a priori selection of a possibly overcomplete(More)
This paper first describes the structure and results of the Abbadingo One DFA Learning Competition. The competition was designed to encourage work on algorithms that scale well—both to larger DFAs and to sparser training data. We then describe and discuss the winning algorithm of Rodney Price, which orders state merges according to the amount of evidence in(More)
Just storing the Hessian H (the matrix of second derivatives ∂ 2 E=∂w i ∂w j of the error E with respect to each pair of weights) of a large neural network is difficult. Since a common use of a large matrix like H is to compute its product with various vectors, we derive a technique that directly calculates Hv, where v is an arbitrary vector. To calculate(More)
A number of procedures are described for finding delta E/ delta W/sub ij/ where E is an error functional of the temporal trajectory of the states of a continuous recurrent network and w/sub ij/ are the weights of that network. Computing these quantities allows one to perform gradient descent in the weights to minimize E, so these procedures form the kernels(More)
Surveys learning algorithms for recurrent neural networks with hidden units and puts the various techniques into a common framework. The authors discuss fixed point learning algorithms, namely recurrent backpropagation and deterministic Boltzmann machines, and nonfixed point algorithms, namely backpropagation through time, Elman's history cutoff, and(More)
We applied second-order blind identification (SOBI), an independent component analysis method, to MEG data collected during cognitive tasks. We explored SOBI's ability to help isolate underlying neuronal sources with relatively poor signal-to-noise ratios, allowing their identification and localization. We compare localization of the SOBI-separated(More)
Faster and less obtrusive means for measuring a Visual Evoked Potential would be valuable in clinical testing and basic neuroscience research. This study presents a method for accomplishing this by smoothly modulating the luminance of a visual stimulus using a stochastic process. Despite its visually unobtrusive nature, the rich statistical structure of the(More)