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The sifting and winnowing of DNA sequence that occur during evolution cause nonfunctional sequences to diverge, leaving phylogenetic footprints of functional sequence elements in comparisons of genome sequences. We searched for such footprints among the genome sequences of six Saccharomyces species and identified potentially functional sequences. Comparison(More)
Chromosome correlation maps display correlations between the expression patterns of genes on the same chromosome. Using these maps, we show here that adjacent pairs of genes, as well as nearby non-adjacent pairs of genes, show correlated expression independent of their orientation. We present specific examples of adjacent pairs with highly correlated(More)
Transcription factor binding sites are being discovered at a rapid pace. It is now necessary to turn attention towards understanding how these sites work in combination to influence gene expression. Quantitative models that accurately predict gene expression from promoter sequence will be a crucial part of solving this problem. Here we present such a model,(More)
The histone modification state of genomic regions is hypothesized to reflect the regulatory activity of the underlying genomic DNA. Based on this hypothesis, the ENCODE Project Consortium measured the status of multiple histone modifications across the genome in several cell types and used these data to segment the genome into regions with different(More)
Ohno [Ohno, S. (1970) in Evolution by Gene Duplication, Springer, New York] proposed that gene duplication with subsequent divergence of paralogs could be a major force in the evolution of new gene functions. In practice the functional differences between closely related homologues produced by duplications can be subtle and difficult to separate(More)
A major goal in computational biology is to develop models that accurately predict a gene's expression from its surrounding regulatory DNA. Here we present one class of such models, thermodynamic state ensemble models. We describe the biochemical derivation of the thermodynamic framework in simple terms, and lay out the mathematical components that comprise(More)
BACKGROUND Oligodendrocytes are specialized cells of the nervous system that produce the myelin sheaths surrounding the axons of neurons. Myelinating the axons increases the speed of nerve conduction and demyelination contributes to the pathology of neurodegenerative diseases such as multiple sclerosis. Oligodendrocyte differentiation is specified early in(More)
Our understanding of the genetic basis of phenotypic diversity is limited by the paucity of examples in which multiple, interacting loci have been identified. We show that natural variation in the efficiency of sporulation, the program in yeast that initiates the sexual phase of the life cycle, between oak tree and vineyard strains is due to allelic(More)
Interactions among genes and the environment are a common source of phenotypic variation. To characterize the interplay between genetics and the environment at single nucleotide resolution, we quantified the genetic and environmental interactions of four quantitative trait nucleotides (QTN) that govern yeast sporulation efficiency. We first constructed a(More)
The expression of most genes is regulated by multiple transcription factors. The interactions between transcription factors produce complex patterns of gene expression that are not always obvious from the arrangement of cis-regulatory elements in a promoter. One critical element of promoters is the TATA box, the docking site for the RNA polymerase(More)