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Parkinson's disease is characterized by a loss of dopaminergic neurons in the mesencephalon. Although the mechanism of this neuronal loss is still unknown, oxidative stress is very likely involved in the cascade of events leading to nerve cell death. Since nitric oxide could be involved in the production of free radicals, we analysed, using(More)
Autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia with progressive macular degeneration is caused by a CAG/glutamine repeat expansion in the SCA7 gene/protein. Neuronal intranuclear inclusions were detected in the brain of an early onset SCA7 case with the 1C2 antibody directed against an expanded polyglutamine domain. Nuclear inclusions were most frequent in the(More)
Caspase-8 is a proximal effector protein of the tumor necrosis factor receptor family death pathway. In the present human postmortem study, we observed a significantly higher percentage of dopaminergic (DA) substantia nigra pars compacta neurons that displayed caspase-8 activation in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients compared with controls. In an in vivo(More)
Friedreich ataxia is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by loss of function mutations in the frataxin gene. In order to unravel frataxin function we developed monoclonal antibodies raised against different regions of the protein. These antibodies detect a processed 18 kDa protein in various human and mouse tissues and cell lines that is(More)
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor is a member of the family of neuronal differentiation and survival-promoting molecules called neurotrophins. Neuronal populations known to show responsiveness to the action of brain-derived neurotrophic factor include the cholinergic forebrain, mesencephalic dopaminergic, cortical, hippocampal and striatal neurons. This(More)
Oxidative stress is thought to be involved in the mechanism of nerve cell death in Parkinson's disease (PD). Among several toxic oxidative species, nitric oxide (NO) has been proposed as a key element on the basis of the increased density of glial cells expressing inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the substantia nigra (SN) of patients with PD.(More)
To examine the consequences of nigrostriatal denervation and chronic levodopa (L-DOPA) treatment on functional activity of the basal ganglia, we analyzed, using in situ hybridization, the cellular expression of the mRNA encoding for cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI mRNA), a molecular marker for functional neuronal activity, in the basal ganglia. This(More)
Caspase-3 is an effector of apoptosis in experimental models of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, its potential role in the human pathology remains to be demonstrated. Using caspase-3 immunohistochemistry on the postmortem human brain, we observed a positive correlation between the degree of neuronal loss in dopaminergic (DA) cell groups affected in the(More)
Several in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) promotes survival of damaged mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons. Using a specific antibody directed against human recombinant BDNF, we studied the expression of the protein at the cellular level in the post-mortem mesencephalon of control subjects and patients with(More)
Degeneration of dopaminergic neurones during Parkinson's disease is most extensive in the subpopulation of melanized-neurones located in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Neuromelanin is a dark pigment produced in the dopaminergic neurones of the human substantia nigra and has the ability to bind a variety of metal ions, especially iron. Post-mortem(More)