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Expression of the human T lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) transactivator/oncoprotein, Tax, leads to faulty mitosis as reflected by chromosome aneuploidy, cytokinesis failure, and formation of micro- and multinucleated cells. Here we show that HTLV-I-transformed T cells progress through S/G(2)/M phases of the cell cycle with a delay. This delay is(More)
Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the causative agent of adult T-cell leukemia. The HTLV-1 transactivator, Tax, is implicated as the viral oncoprotein. Naïve cells expressing Tax for the first time develop severe cell cycle abnormalities that include increased DNA synthesis, mitotic arrest, appearance of convoluted nuclei with decondensed DNA,(More)
PURPOSE To determine whether the complement factor H (CFH) tyrosine 402 histidine (Y402H) variant, recently shown to be associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and multifocal choroiditis, is associated with specific ocular sarcoidosis clinical phenotypes in black and white persons. DESIGN Case-control study. METHODS The CFH Y402H(More)
In vivo blockade of the human IL-2R by mAb has been used for immunosuppression in transplantation, therapy for leukemia, and autoimmune diseases. In this study, we report that administration of a humanized IL-2R blocking Ab induced a 4- to 20-fold expansion of CD56(bright) regulatory NK cells in uveitis patients over time. The induced CD56(bright)(More)
PURPOSE High-temperature requirement serine protease (HTRA1) was identified as a candidate age-related macular degeneration gene in multiple genetic studies in humans. To date, no functional studies have shown a mechanism for HTRA1 to instigate ocular tissue abnormalities. In the present study, the authors focused on a substrate of HTRA1, fibronectin,(More)
PURPOSE AS101 is a non-toxic organotellurium-IV compound with demonstrated immunomodulating activity in vitro and in vivo. Inflammatory responses are attributed to the pathophysiology of numerous ocular diseases. In this study, we wished to elucidate whether AS101 could mitigate pro-inflammatory activity in human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells,(More)
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of irreversible blindness in the elderly population worldwide. Although recent studies have demonstrated strong genetic associations between AMD and SNPs in a number of genes, other modes of regulation are also likely to play a role in the etiology of this disease. We identified a significantly(More)
Glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor (GITR), found constitutively expressed on human primary natural killer (NK) cells at low levels was up-regulated upon stimulation by either Toll-like receptor ligand or NK cell growth factor, interleukin (IL)-15. cDNA microarray analysis showed that engagement of GITR primarily suppressed the activation(More)
The importance of identifying VEGF-independent pathways in pathological angiogenesis is increasingly recognized as a result of the emerging drug resistance to anti-VEGF therapies. PDGF-CC is the third member of the PDGF family discovered after more than two decades of studies on PDGF-AA and PDGF-BB. The biological function of PDGF-CC and the underlying(More)
PURPOSE To describe the immune alterations associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD); and, based on these findings, to offer an approach to possibly prevent the expression of late disease. DESIGN Perspective. METHODS Review of the existing literature dealing with epidemiology, models, and immunologic findings in patients. RESULTS(More)