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We define the activity and mechanisms of action of a small molecule lead compound for cancer targeting. We show that the compound, BMH-21, has wide and potent antitumorigenic activity across NCI60 cancer cell lines and represses tumor growth in vivo. BMH-21 binds GC-rich sequences, which are present at a high frequency in ribosomal DNA genes, and potently(More)
The nucleolus is a nuclear organelle that coordinates rRNA transcription and ribosome subunit biogenesis. Recent proteomic analyses have shown that the nucleolus contains proteins involved in cell cycle control, DNA processing and DNA damage response and repair, in addition to the many proteins connected with ribosome subunit production. Here we study the(More)
UV damage activates cellular stress signaling pathways, causes DNA helix distortions and inhibits transcription by RNA polymerases I and II. In particular, the nucleolus, which is the site of RNA polymerase I transcription and ribosome biogenesis, disintegrates following UV damage. The disintegration is characterized by reorganization of the subnucleolar(More)
Micro RNAs (miRNA) are non-coding RNAs expressed in the cytoplasm as their mature, 21-22-nucleotide short forms. More recently, mature miRNAs have also been detected in the nucleus, raising the possibility that their spatial distribution may be more complex than anticipated. Here we undertook comprehensive systematic analyses of miRNA distribution in(More)
CRM1 is an export factor that together with its adaptor NMD3 transports numerous cargo molecules from the nucleus to cytoplasm through the nuclear pore. Previous studies have suggested that CRM1 and NMD3 are detected in the nucleolus. However, their localization with subnucleolar domains or participation in the activities of the nucleolus are unclear. We(More)
Small non-coding RNAs represent RNA species that are not translated to proteins, but which have diverse and broad functional activities in physiological and pathophysiological states. The knowledge of these small RNAs is rapidly expanding in part through the use of massive parallel (deep) sequencing efforts. We present here the first deep sequencing of(More)
Efficient extraction and accurate quantification of nucleolar macromolecules are critical for in vitro analysis, especially for studying RNA, DNA, and protein dynamics under identical conditions. There is presently no single method that efficiently and simultaneously isolates these three macromolecular constituents from purified nucleoli. We have developed(More)
This report develops an analytically validated chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) assay using branched DNA signal amplification (RNAscope) for detecting the expression of the 5' external transcribed spacer (ETS) of the 45S ribosomal (r) RNA precursor in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) human tissues. 5'ETS/45S CISH was performed on standard(More)
The nucleolus is involved in a number of cellular processes of importance to cell physiology and pathology, including cell stress responses and malignancies. Studies of macromolecular composition of the nucleolus depend critically on the efficient extraction and accurate quantification of all macromolecular components (e.g., DNA, RNA, and protein). We have(More)
This study aimed to evaluate the advantages of routine ultrasound (US), contrast-enhanced US (CEUS), and the combination of these 2 methods in diagnosing papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). We subjected 89 patients with calcified thyroid nodules to conventional US and CEUS and then retrospectively analyzed the US and CEUS features of 89 patients with single,(More)