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The insecticidal activity of Bacillus thuringiensis strains toxic to coleopterous insects is due to Cry3 proteins assembled into small rectangular crystals. Toxin synthesis in these strains is dependent primarily upon a promoter that is active in the stationary phase and a STAB-SD sequence that stabilizes the cry3 transcript-ribosome complex. Here we show(More)
Berberine, an alkaloid derivative from Berberis vulgaris L., has been used extensively in traditional Chinese medicine to treat diarrhea and diabetes, but the underlying mechanisms for treating diabetes are not fully understood. Recent studies suggested that berberine has many beneficial biological effects, including anti-inflammation. Because type 1(More)
To compare the differential effects of cry2A operon orf2 (29-kDa protein gene) and Cry11A operon orf3 (20-kDa protein gene) on Cry2A synthesis and inclusion formation, we expressed the cry2A gene along with either the 29-kDa gene, 20-kDa gene, or both genes. Constructs containing 20-kDa, in the presence or absence of 29-kDa, produced more Cry2A than(More)
The protein Tir (translocated intimin receptor) in enteric bacteria shares sequence similarity with the host cellular immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motifs (ITIMs). Despite the importance of Tir in pedestal formation, relatively little is known about the role of Tir and its ITIMs in the regulation of the host immune response. Here we demonstrate(More)
A putative DNA helicase gene from the granulovirus of Trichoplusia ni (TnGV) was cloned, sequenced, and compared with the corresponding gene of several multinucleocapsid nucleopolyhedroviruses (MNPVs) including those from Autographa californica (AcMNPV), Orgyia pseudotsugata (OpMNPV), Bombyx mori (BmNPV), and Spodoptera exigua (SeMNPV). The TnGV helicase(More)
Task-based fMRI (tfMRI) has been widely used to explore functional brain networks via predefined stimulus paradigm in the fMRI scan. Traditionally, the general linear model (GLM) has been a dominant approach to detect task-evoked networks. However, GLM focuses on task-evoked or event-evoked brain responses and possibly ignores the intrinsic brain functions.(More)
Immune responses to pathogens are regulated by immune receptors containing either an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) or an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM). The important diarrheal pathogen enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) require delivery and insertion of the bacterial translocated intimin receptor (Tir)(More)
Production of molecules with toxic activity by genetically transformed symbiotic bacteria of pest insects may serve as a powerful approach to biological control. The symbiont, Enterobacter gergoviae, isolated from the gut of the pink bollworm (PBW), has been transformed to express Cyt1A, a cytolytic protein toxin lethal to mosquito and black fly larvae, as(More)
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the most virulent pathogen among enteroviruses that cause hand, foot and mouth disease in children but rarely in adults. The mechanisms that determine the age-dependent susceptibility remain largely unclear. Here, we found that the paucity of invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells together with immaturity of the immune system was(More)
Pleural tuberculosis (TB), together with lymphatic TB, constitutes more than half of all extrapulmonary cases. Pleural effusions (PEs) in TB are representative of lymphocytic PEs which are dominated by T cells. However, the mechanism underlying T lymphocytes homing and accumulation in PEs is still incompletely understood. Here we performed a comparative(More)