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The insecticidal activity of Bacillus thuringiensis strains toxic to coleopterous insects is due to Cry3 proteins assembled into small rectangular crystals. Toxin synthesis in these strains is dependent primarily upon a promoter that is active in the stationary phase and a STAB-SD sequence that stabilizes the cry3 transcript-ribosome complex. Here we show(More)
Stability of membrane protein is crucial during protein purification and crystallization as well as in the fabrication of protein-based devices. Several recent studies have examined how various surfactants can stabilize membrane proteins out of their native membrane environment. However, there is still no single surfactant that can be universally employed(More)
Chemokine receptors belong to a class of integral membrane G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) and are responsible for transmitting signals from the extracellular environment. However, the structural changes in the receptor, connecting ligand binding to G-protein activation, remain elusive for most GPCRs due to the difficulty to produce them for structural(More)
The macromolecular pigment-protein complex has the merit of high efficiency for light-energy capture and transfer after long-term photosynthetic evolution. Here bio-dyes of A. platensis photosystem I (PSI) and spinach light-harvesting complex II (LHCII) are spontaneously sensitized on three types of designed TiO2 films, to assess the effects of(More)
Surfactants play a significant role in solubilization of photosystem I (PSI) in vitro. Triton X-100 (TX), n-Dodecyl-β-d-maltoside (DDM), and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) were employed to solubilize PSI particles in MES buffer to compare the effect of surfactant and its dosage on the apparent oxygen consumption rate of PSI. Through a combined assessment of(More)
Human chemokine receptor CCR3 (hCCR3) belongs to the G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) superfamily of membrane proteins and plays major roles in allergic diseases and angiogenesis. In order to study the structural and functional mechanism of hCCR3, it is essential to produce pure protein with biological functions on a milligram scale. Here we report the(More)
Genes of the key enzymes for phycocyanobilin (PCB) biosynthesis were cloned into E. coli and combinationally expressed to produce phycocyanobilin, with autologous heme as substrate. Culture conditions were optimized to achieve ~3 mg PCB/l. A protocol for the purification of recombinant phycocyanobilin was established using solvent extraction combined with(More)
It is difficult to maintain a target membrane protein in a soluble and functional form in aqueous solution without biological membranes. Use of surfactants can improve solubility, but it remains challenging to identify adequate surfactants that can improve solubility without damaging their native structures and biological functions. Here we report the use(More)
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