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Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe diarrhoea in children worldwide and diarrhoeal deaths in children in developing countries. Accelerated development and introduction of rotavirus vaccines into global immunisation programmes has been a high priority for many international agencies, including WHO and the Global Alliance for Vaccines and(More)
Rabies virus (RV) induces encephalomyelitis in humans and animals. However, the pathogenic mechanism of rabies is not fully understood. To investigate the host responses to RV infection, we examined and compared the pathology, particularly the inflammatory responses, and the gene expression profiles in the brains of mice infected with wild-type (wt) virus(More)
The development of rotavirus vaccines that are based on heterotypic or serotype-specific immunity has prompted many countries to establish programs to assess the disease burden associated with rotavirus infection and the distribution of rotavirus strains. Strain surveillance helps to determine whether the most prevalent local strains are likely to be(More)
Rotavirus vaccines hold promise to decrease the burden of severe diarrhea in the poorest countries, where 85% of deaths due to rotavirus occur. However, the potency of live oral vaccines is lower in these challenging settings than in middle- and upper-income countries. Many hypotheses have been suggested to explain these differences that could provide clues(More)
Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe gastroenteritis in young children, but the pathogenesis and immunity of this disease are not completely understood. To examine the host response to acute infection, we collected paired serum specimens from 30 children with rotavirus diarrhea and measured the levels of nine cytokines (interleukin-1beta [IL-1beta],(More)
BACKGROUND Postlicensure data has identified a causal link between rotavirus vaccines and intussusception in some settings. As rotavirus vaccines are introduced globally, monitoring intussusception will be crucial for ensuring safety of the vaccine programs. METHODS To obtain updated information on background rates and clinical management of(More)
Rotavirus subunit vaccines are being evaluated for use in humans. The virus-like particles (VLPs) for these vaccines are produced in insect cells coinfected with combinations of baculovirus recombinants expressing bovine RIF VP2 and simian SA11, VP4, VP6, or VP7 rotavirus proteins. VLPs were administered parenterally to mice and rabbits, and the(More)
Rotavirus (RV) P[11] is an unique genotype that infects neonates. The mechanism of such age-specific host restriction remains unknown. In this study, we explored host mucosal glycans as a potential age-specific factor for attachment of P[11] RVs. Using in vitro binding assays, we demonstrated that VP8* of a P[11] RV (N155) could bind saliva of infants(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the effect of abstention from breastfeeding, for an hour before and after each vaccination, on the immune responses of infants to two doses of rotavirus vaccine. METHODS In Soweto, South Africa, mother-infant pairs who were uninfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were enrolled as they presented for the "6-week"(More)