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The development of rotavirus vaccines that are based on heterotypic or serotype-specific immunity has prompted many countries to establish programs to assess the disease burden associated with rotavirus infection and the distribution of rotavirus strains. Strain surveillance helps to determine whether the most prevalent local strains are likely to be(More)
Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe diarrhoea in children worldwide and diarrhoeal deaths in children in developing countries. Accelerated development and introduction of rotavirus vaccines into global immunisation programmes has been a high priority for many international agencies, including WHO and the Global Alliance for Vaccines and(More)
Group C rotaviruses have been recognized as a cause of acute gastroenteritis in humans, cattle, and swine, although the true epidemiologic and clinical importance of this virus in these hosts has not yet been fully established. A real-time PCR assay based on a broadly reactive primer pair was developed and used to quantitatively determine the viral load of(More)
We reviewed studies of rotavirus in MEDLINE and the Chinese literature to get a preliminary estimate of the burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis in China and the epidemiology of the disease. Studies were selected if they were conducted for a period 1 year or more, had more than 100 patients enrolled, and used an accepted diagnostic test. Overall, in 27(More)
BACKGROUND Postlicensure data has identified a causal link between rotavirus vaccines and intussusception in some settings. As rotavirus vaccines are introduced globally, monitoring intussusception will be crucial for ensuring safety of the vaccine programs. METHODS To obtain updated information on background rates and clinical management of(More)
We previously reported the first detection of simian picobirnaviruses (PBVs) by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in fecal specimens of two monkeys with diarrhea in China. We now report the detection of genogroup I PBVs in 48% (44/92) of the fecal specimens by reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) and amplicon sequencing using primers specific for the(More)
Rotavirus vaccines hold promise to decrease the burden of severe diarrhea in the poorest countries, where 85% of deaths due to rotavirus occur. However, the potency of live oral vaccines is lower in these challenging settings than in middle- and upper-income countries. Many hypotheses have been suggested to explain these differences that could provide clues(More)
The patterns of gene expression and the phenotypes of lymphocytes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from children with diarrhea caused by rotavirus and healthy children were compared by using DNA microarray, quantitative PCR, and flow cytometry. We observed increased expression of a number of genes encoding proinflammatory cytokines and(More)
The World Health Organization estimates that rotavirus diarrhea results in approximately half a million deaths and approximately 2.4 million hospitalizations in developing countries each year. Two live oral rotavirus vaccines, RotaTeq® (RV 5; Merck) and Rotarix® (RV 1; GlaxoSmithKline) with good efficacy against severe rotavirus disease and a reassuring(More)
BACKGROUND Trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) is known to interfere with monovalent rotavirus vaccine (RV1) immunogenicity. The interference caused by bivalent and monovalent OPV formulations, which will be increasingly used globally in coming years, has not been examined. We conducted a post hoc analysis to assess the effect of coadministration of(More)