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Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe diarrhoea in children worldwide and diarrhoeal deaths in children in developing countries. Accelerated development and introduction of rotavirus vaccines into global immunisation programmes has been a high priority for many international agencies, including WHO and the Global Alliance for Vaccines and(More)
Rabies virus (RV) induces encephalomyelitis in humans and animals. However, the pathogenic mechanism of rabies is not fully understood. To investigate the host responses to RV infection, we examined and compared the pathology, particularly the inflammatory responses, and the gene expression profiles in the brains of mice infected with wild-type (wt) virus(More)
Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe gastroenteritis in young children, but the pathogenesis and immunity of this disease are not completely understood. To examine the host response to acute infection, we collected paired serum specimens from 30 children with rotavirus diarrhea and measured the levels of nine cytokines (interleukin-1beta [IL-1beta],(More)
BACKGROUND Postlicensure data has identified a causal link between rotavirus vaccines and intussusception in some settings. As rotavirus vaccines are introduced globally, monitoring intussusception will be crucial for ensuring safety of the vaccine programs. METHODS To obtain updated information on background rates and clinical management of(More)
Rotavirus (RV) P[11] is an unique genotype that infects neonates. The mechanism of such age-specific host restriction remains unknown. In this study, we explored host mucosal glycans as a potential age-specific factor for attachment of P[11] RVs. Using in vitro binding assays, we demonstrated that VP8* of a P[11] RV (N155) could bind saliva of infants(More)
BACKGROUND Breast milk contains anti-rotavirus IgA antibodies and other innate immune factors that inhibit rotavirus replication in vitro. These factors could diminish the immunogenicity of oral rotavirus vaccines, particularly if breastfeeding occurs close to the time of vaccine administration. METHODS Between April 2011 and November 2012, we conducted(More)
To the Editor: Adenoviruses commonly infect vertebrates, including humans and nonhuman primates (1). Adenoviruses from humans and animals were initially classified by differences in their agglutinating erythrocytes; now, however, they are often classified by sequence and phy-logenetic analyses of their respective genes (2). One simian adenovirus species ,(More)
BACKGROUND To effectively analyze the requirements for protection to rotavirus infection, a reliable animal model that reasonably mimics infection and disease in humans is needed. A requirement for an effective animal model is the availability of appropriate rotavirus stocks for challenge. RESULTS A new simian rotavirus, designated YK-1, was isolated from(More)