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Efforts to identify a suitable follow-on compound to razaxaban (compound 4) focused on modification of the carboxamido linker to eliminate potential in vivo hydrolysis to a primary aniline. Cyclization of the carboxamido linker to the novel bicyclic tetrahydropyrazolopyridinone scaffold retained the potent fXa binding activity. Exceptional potency of the(More)
Evaluating biliary excretion, a major elimination pathway for many compounds, is important in drug discovery. The bile duct-cannulated (BDC) rat model is commonly used to determine the percentage of dose excreted as intact parent into bile. However, a study using BDC rats is time-consuming and cost-ineffective. The present report describes a computational(More)
Apixaban is an oral, direct, and highly selective factor Xa inhibitor in late-stage clinical development for the prevention and treatment of thromboembolic diseases. Apixaban was evaluated in rat thrombosis and hemostasis models. Thrombosis was produced in the carotid artery by FeCl2 application, in the vena cava by either FeCl2 application or tissue factor(More)
Factor (F) VIIa in association with tissue factor (TF) is the primary in vivo initiator of blood coagulation and activates FX and FIX to generate thrombin, which plays a key role in the pathogenesis of thrombosis. We evaluated the enzyme kinetics, antithrombotic and antihaemostatic properties of BMS-593214, an active-site, direct FVIIa inhibitor. Studies(More)
Apixaban is a potent, highly selective, reversible, oral, direct factor Xa (fXa) inhibitor in development for thrombosis prevention and treatment. The preclinical pharmacokinetic (PK) attributes of apixaban feature small volume of distribution (Vd), low systemic clearance (CL), and good oral bioavailability. Apixaban is well absorbed in rat, dog, and(More)
Caco-2 cells, the human colon carcinoma cells, are typically used for screening compounds for their permeability characteristics and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) interaction potential during discovery and development. The P-gp inhibition of test compounds is assessed by performing bi-directional permeability studies with digoxin, a well established P-gp substrate(More)
N-in-1 (or cassette) dosing pharmacokinetics (PK) has been used in drug discovery for rapid assessment of PK properties of new chemical entities. However, because of potential for drug-drug interactions this procedure is still controversial. This study was to retrospectively evaluate the N-in-1 dosing approach in drug discovery with an emphasis on the(More)
Apixaban has similar affinity for human and rabbit factor Xa (FXa). Rabbits are commonly used in development of thrombosis disease models; however, unlike in other species, apixaban demonstrated poor oral bioavailability (F = 3%) and a high clearance rate (2.55 l/h/kg) in rabbits. Oxidative metabolism of [14C] apixaban by liver microsomes was approximately(More)
The present study describes a new analytical approach for the detection and characterization of GSH-trapped reactive metabolites using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) as the survey scan to trigger the acquisition of enhanced product ion (EPI) spectra on a triple quadrupole linear ion mass spectrometer. The MRM scan step was carried out following up to(More)
Caco-2 cells are frequently used for screening compounds for their permeability characteristics and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) interaction potential. Bi-directional permeability studies performed on Caco-2 cells followed by analysis by HPLC-UV or LC-MS method constitutes the "method of choice" for the functional assessment of efflux characteristics of a test(More)