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The intestinal immune system is exposed to a mixture of foreign antigens from diet, commensal flora and potential pathogens. Understanding how pathogen-specific immunity is elicited while avoiding inappropriate responses to the background of innocuous antigens is essential for understanding and treating intestinal infections and inflammatory diseases. The(More)
Although gene therapy has reduced manifestations of genetic diseases, immune responses can abrogate the effect. One approach to inducing tolerance is to perform gene transfer in newborns when the immune system is immature. We demonstrate here that the dose of retroviral vector (RV) is important in mice, as mucopolysaccharidosis I (MPS I) mice that received(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Helicobacter pylori infection increases gastric regulatory T cell (Treg) response, which may contribute to H pylori immune escape. We hypothesize that H pylori directs Treg skewing by way of dendritic cells (DCs) and thus inhibits interleukin-17(+) helper T cells (Th17) immunity. METHODS Two-photon microscopy was used to locate DCs in(More)
Immune-mediated pulmonary diseases are a significant public health concern. Analysis of leukocyte behavior in the lung is essential for understanding cellular mechanisms that contribute to normal and diseased states. Here, we used two-photon imaging to study neutrophil extravasation from pulmonary vessels and subsequent interstitial migration. We found that(More)
Mucopolysaccharidosis I (MPS I) is caused by deficient alpha-L-iduronidase (IDUA) activity and results in the accumulation of glycosaminoglycans and multisystemic disease. Gene therapy could program cells to secrete mannose 6-phosphate-modified IDUA, and enzyme in blood could be taken up by other cells. Neonatal retroviral vector (RV)-mediated gene therapy(More)
Food-derived exosome-like nanoparticles pass through the intestinal tract throughout our lives, but little is known about their impact or function. Here, as a proof of concept, we show that the cells targeted by grape exosome-like nanoparticles (GELNs) are intestinal stem cells whose responses underlie the GELN-mediated intestinal tissue remodeling and(More)
SCOPE Exosomes, small vesicles participating in intercellular communication, have been extensively studied recently; however, the role of edible plant derived exosomes in interspecies communication has not been investigated. Here, we investigate the biological effects of edible plant derived exosome-like nanoparticles (EPDENs) on mammalian cells. METHODS(More)
Pathogen recognition by T cells is dependent on their exquisite specificity for self-major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules presenting a bound peptide. Although this specificity results from positive and negative selection of developing T cells in the thymus, the relative contribution of these two processes remains controversial. To address the(More)
The intestinal immune system is exposed to a mixture of foreign antigens from diet, commensal flora, and potential pathogens. Understanding how pathogen-specific immunity is elicited while avoiding inappropriate responses to the background of innocuous antigens is essential for understanding and treating intestinal infections and inflammatory diseases. The(More)
The miRNA cluster miR-17~92 targets mRNAs involved in distinct pathways that either promote or inhibit tumor progression. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying miR-17~92 cluster-mediated protumorigenic or anti-tumorigenic effects have not been studied. Herein, we determined that inhibition of colon cancer progression is dictated by(More)