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The brain produces two brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) transcripts, with either short or long 3' untranslated regions (3' UTRs). The physiological significance of the two forms of mRNAs encoding the same protein is unknown. Here, we show that the short and long 3' UTR BDNF mRNAs are involved in different cellular functions. The short 3' UTR mRNAs(More)
Various aspects of the complex spatio-temporal patterning of hypothalamic signaling that leads to the development of synchronized nocturnal feeding in the rat are critically examined. Undoubtedly, as depicted in Fig. 7, a distinct ARN in the hypothalamus is involved in the control of nocturnal appetite. At least four basic elements operate within this ARN.(More)
The melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) is critically involved in regulating energy balance, and obesity has been observed in mice with mutations in the gene for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Here we report that BDNF is expressed at high levels in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) where its expression is regulated by nutritional state and by MC4R(More)
Expression of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is under tight regulation to accommodate its intricate roles in controlling brain function. Transcription of BDNF initiates from multiple promoters in response to distinct stimulation cues. However, regardless which promoter is used, all BDNF transcripts are processed at two alternative(More)
To examine functions of TrkB in the adult CNS, TrkB has been removed from neurons expressing CaMKII, primarily pyramidal neurons, using Cre-mediated recombination. A floxed trkB allele was designed so that neurons lacking TrkB express tau-beta-galactosidase. Following trkB deletion in pyramidal cells, their dendritic arbors are altered, and cortical layers(More)
The participation of hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY)-, galanin (GAL)-, and opioid-producing neurons in the restraint on food intake exerted by adipocyte leptin has recently been recognized. To further understand the interplay between the central appetite-stimulating- and peripheral appetite-inhibiting signals in the management of daily food intake, we(More)
The ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMN) is known to mediate autonomic responses in feeding and reproductive behaviors. To date, the most definitive molecular marker for the VMN is the orphan nuclear receptor steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1). However, it is unclear whether SF-1 functions in the VMN as it does in peripheral endocrine organ development where(More)
Dysfunction of inhibitory neurons in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), represented by decreased expression of GABA-related genes such as the 67 kDa isoform of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD67) and parvalbumin (PV), appears to contribute to cognitive deficits in subjects with schizophrenia. We investigated the involvement of signaling mediated by brain-derived(More)
Substantial evidence indicates that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a crucial role in synaptic plasticity. Long-lasting synaptic plasticity is restricted to active synapses and requires new protein synthesis. Recent work has identified local protein synthesis as an important source for new protein during the expression of enduring synaptic(More)
The relationship between neuronal glutamate turnover, the glutamate/glutamine cycle and de novo glutamate synthesis was examined using two different model systems, freshly dissected rat retinas ex vivo and in vivo perfused rat brains. In the ex vivo rat retina, dual kinetic control of de novo glutamate synthesis by pyruvate carboxylation and transamination(More)