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The transcription corepressor CtBP is often recruited to the target promoter via interaction with a conserved PxDLS motif in the interacting repressor. In this study, we demonstrate that CtBP1 was SUMOylated and that its SUMOylation profoundly affected its subcellular localization. SUMOylation occurred at a single Lys residue, Lys428, of CtBP1. CtBP2, a(More)
Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) has an unusual molecular etiology. In a putatively heterochromatic subtelomeric region of each chromosome 4 homologue (4q35), unaffected individuals have 11 to about 95 tandem copies of a complex 3.3-kb repeat (D4Z4). Most FSHD patients have less than 10 copies at one allelic 4q35. This has been proposed to lead(More)
ICF (immunodeficiency, centromeric region instability and facial anomalies) is a recessive disease caused by mutations in the DNA methyltransferase 3B gene (DNMT3B). Patients have immunodeficiency, chromosome 1 (Chr1) and Chr16 pericentromeric anomalies in mitogen-stimulated lymphocytes, a small decrease in overall genomic 5-methylcytosine levels and much(More)
Smad6 and Smad7 are inhibitory Smads induced by transforming growth factor beta-Smad signal transduction pathways in a negative-feedback mechanism. Previously it has been thought that inhibitory Smads bind to the type I receptor and block the phosphorylation of receptor-activated Smads, thereby inhibiting the initiation of Smad signaling. Conversely, few(More)
In this letter, we consider the problem of clustering, given the similarity matrix of a set of data points or nodes; this problem is a.k.a. graph clustering. Spectral clustering techniques are typically used to solve this problem. The performance of the existing spectral clustering techniques is not satisfactory for many applications. To improve the(More)
Several novel protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes have been identified as substrates for caspase-3. We have previously shown that novel PKCepsilon is cleaved during apoptosis in MCF-7 cells that lack any functional caspase-3. In the present study, we show that in vitro-translated PKCepsilon is processed by human recombinant caspase-3, -7, and -9. Tumor necrosis(More)
Leukemia cells are protected by various components of their microenvironment, including marrow stromal cells (MSCs). To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying this protection, we cultured acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells with MSCs and studied the effect of the latter on the molecular profiling of ALL cells at the mRNA and protein levels. Our(More)
The development of mature B cells from hematopoietic stem cells is a strictly orchestrated process involving multiple regulatory genes. The transcription factor Sox4 is required for this process, but its role has not been systematically studied, and the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. To determine when and how Sox4 functions in the stepwise process of(More)
The transcription factor E2F1 is known for its interaction with pRb, controlling cell proliferation; however, E2F1 also has a pivotal role in regulating apoptosis.  The relationship between pRb and E2F1 balances cell proliferation and apoptosis giving pRb tumor suppressive properties. The intricacies of the pRb/E2F1 relationship and thus the regulation of(More)
The canonical wingless-type MMTV integration site (WNT)-β-catenin pathway is essential for self-renewal, growth and survival of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) stem/blast progenitor cells (BPCs). Deregulated WNT signaling inhibits degradation of β-catenin, causing increased nuclear translocation and co-factor activity of β-catenin with the transcriptional(More)