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Hepatic natural killer (NK) cells mediate antigen (Ag)-specific contact hypersensitivity (CHS) in T-cell and B-cell deficient mice. We now report that hepatic, but not splenic or naïve NK cells also develop specific memory to vaccines containing Ags from influenza, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) or human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV). Adoptive transfer(More)
Ginseng polysaccharide has been known to have multiple immunomodulatory effects. In this study, we investigated whether Panax ginseng polysaccharide (GP) would have a preventive effect on influenza infection. Administration of mice with GP prior to infection was found to confer a survival benefit against infection with H1N1 (A/PR/8/34) and H3N2(More)
BACKGROUND The recent swine-origin H1N1 pandemic illustrates the need to develop improved procedures for rapid production of influenza vaccines. One alternative to the current egg-based manufacture of influenza vaccine is to produce a hemagglutinin (HA) subunit vaccine using a recombinant expression system with the potential for high protein yields, ease of(More)
BACKGROUND Current influenza vaccines based on the hemagglutinin protein are strain specific and do not provide good protection against drifted viruses or emergence of new pandemic strains. An influenza vaccine that can confer cross-protection against antigenically different influenza A strains is highly desirable for improving public health. (More)
We have designed a membrane-anchored form of the Toll-like receptor 5 ligand flagellin, the major proinflammatory determinant of enteropathogenic Salmonella, which was found to be glycosylated and expressed on cell surfaces. A chimeric influenza virus-like particle (cVLP) vaccine candidate containing A/PR8/34 (H(1)N(1)) hemagglutinin (HA), matrix protein(More)
We demonstrated previously that the incorporation of a membrane-anchored form of flagellin into influenza virus-like particles (VLPs) improved the immunogenicity of VLPs significantly, inducing partially protective heterosubtypic immunity by intramuscular immunization. Because the efficacy of mucosal vaccination is highly dependent on an adjuvant, and is(More)
Previously, a modified HIV Env protein with a heterologous membrane anchor was found to be incorporated into HIV virus-like particles (VLPs) at 10-fold-higher levels than those of unmodified Env. To further improve the immunogenicity of such VLPs, membrane-anchored forms of bacterial flagellin (FliC) or a flagellin with a truncated variable region (tFliC)(More)
Due to frequent viral antigenic change, current influenza vaccines need to be re-formulated annually to match the circulating strains for battling seasonal influenza epidemics. These vaccines are also ineffective in preventing occasional outbreaks of new influenza pandemic viruses. All these challenges call for the development of universal influenza(More)
HIV vaccines should elicit immune responses at both the mucosal portals of entry to block transmission and systemic compartments to clear disseminated viruses. Co-delivery of mucosal adjuvants has been shown to be essential to induce effective mucosal immunity by non-replicating vaccines. A novel cytokine, GIFT4, engineered by fusing GM-CSF and(More)
The ectodomain of matrix protein 2 (M2e) is highly conserved among influenza A viruses and can be a promising candidate antigen for a broadly cross-protective vaccine. In this study, a tetrameric M2e (tM2e) and a truncated form of flagellin (tFliC) were coincorporated into virus-like particles (VLPs) to enhance its immunogenicity. Our data showed that the(More)