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Hepatic natural killer (NK) cells mediate antigen-specific contact hypersensitivity (CHS) in mice deficient in T cells and B cells. We report here that hepatic NK cells, but not splenic or naive NK cells, also developed specific memory of vaccines containing antigens from influenza, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) or human immunodeficiency virus type 1(More)
BACKGROUND The recent swine-origin H1N1 pandemic illustrates the need to develop improved procedures for rapid production of influenza vaccines. One alternative to the current egg-based manufacture of influenza vaccine is to produce a hemagglutinin (HA) subunit vaccine using a recombinant expression system with the potential for high protein yields, ease of(More)
Ginseng polysaccharide has been known to have multiple immunomodulatory effects. In this study, we investigated whether Panax ginseng polysaccharide (GP) would have a preventive effect on influenza infection. Administration of mice with GP prior to infection was found to confer a survival benefit against infection with H1N1 (A/PR/8/34) and H3N2(More)
Previously, a modified HIV Env protein with a heterologous membrane anchor was found to be incorporated into HIV virus-like particles (VLPs) at 10-fold-higher levels than those of unmodified Env. To further improve the immunogenicity of such VLPs, membrane-anchored forms of bacterial flagellin (FliC) or a flagellin with a truncated variable region (tFliC)(More)
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) envelope (Env) protein is incorporated into HIV virions or virus-like particles (VLPs) at very low levels compared to the glycoproteins of most other enveloped viruses. To test factors that influence HIV Env particle incorporation, we generated a series of chimeric gene constructs in which the coding sequences for the(More)
The extracellular domain of matrix protein 2 (M2e) is conserved among influenza A viruses. The goal of this project is to develop enhanced influenza vaccines with broad protective efficacy using the M2e antigen. We designed a membrane-anchored fusion protein by replacing the hyperimmunogenic region of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium flagellin (FliC)(More)
BACKGROUND Current influenza vaccines based on the hemagglutinin protein are strain specific and do not provide good protection against drifted viruses or emergence of new pandemic strains. An influenza vaccine that can confer cross-protection against antigenically different influenza A strains is highly desirable for improving public health. (More)
HIV vaccines should elicit immune responses at both the mucosal portals of entry to block transmission and systemic compartments to clear disseminated viruses. Co-delivery of mucosal adjuvants has been shown to be essential to induce effective mucosal immunity by non-replicating vaccines. A novel cytokine, GIFT4, engineered by fusing GM-CSF and(More)
We have designed a membrane-anchored form of the Toll-like receptor 5 ligand flagellin, the major proinflammatory determinant of enteropathogenic Salmonella, which was found to be glycosylated and expressed on cell surfaces. A chimeric influenza virus-like particle (cVLP) vaccine candidate containing A/PR8/34 (H(1)N(1)) hemagglutinin (HA), matrix protein(More)
Due to frequent viral antigenic change, current influenza vaccines need to be re-formulated annually to match the circulating strains for battling seasonal influenza epidemics. These vaccines are also ineffective in preventing occasional outbreaks of new influenza pandemic viruses. All these challenges call for the development of universal influenza(More)