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BACKGROUND Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterised by airflow limitation, and has many components including mucus hypersecretion, oxidative stress, and airway inflammation. We aimed to assess whether carbocisteine, a mucolytic agent with anti-inflammatory and antioxidation activities, could reduce the yearly exacerbation rate in(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVES Structural and functional brain changes may contribute to neural dysfunction in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). However, the effect of OSA on resting-state brain activity has not been established. The objective of this study was to investigate alterations in resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) of the common brain(More)
BACKGROUND Autophagy is a specific universal biological phenomenon in eukaryotic cells, which is characterized by cytoplasmic vacuoles in the process of degrading cellular contents in lysosomes. The hippocampus plays an important role in higher nervous activities such as emotional integration, cognition, and memory. As an area closely related to learning(More)
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common condition characterized by repetitive episodes of complete (apnea) or partial (hypopnea) obstruction of the upper airway during sleep, resulting in oxygen desaturation and arousal from sleep. Intermittent hypoxia (IH) resulting from OSA may cause structural neuron damage and dysfunction in the central nervous system(More)
OBJECTIVES Intermittent hypoxia (IH), resulted from recurring episodes of upper airway obstruction, is the hallmark feature and the most important pathophysiologic pathway of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). IH is believed to be the most important factor causing systemic inflammation. Studies suggest that insulin resistance (IR) is positively associated with(More)
BACKGROUND The right anterior insula (AIns) is an important node of the salience network and serves to switch between two major cognitive-related functional brain networks, ie, the central executive network (CEN) and the default mode network (DMN), both of which show functional deficits in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients. However, the effect of OSA(More)
In this study the phenolic compounds piceid, resveratrol and emodin were extracted from P. cuspidatum roots using ultrasound-assisted extraction. Multiple response surface methodology was used to optimize the extraction conditions of these phenolic compounds. A three-factor and three-level Box-Behnken experimental design was employed to evaluate the effects(More)
Complex sleep apnea syndrome (CompSAS) is a distinct form of sleep-disordered breathing characterized as central sleep apnea (CSA), and presents in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients during initial treatment with a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) device. The mechanisms of why CompSAS occurs are not well understood, though we have a high loop(More)
OBJECTIVES To develop a sleep hypoxia (SH) in emphysema (SHE) rat model and to explore whether SHE results in more severe hepatic inflammation than emphysema alone and whether the inflammation changes levels of coagulant/anticoagulant factors synthesized in the liver. METHODS Seventy-five rats were put into 5 groups: SH control (SHCtrl), treated with sham(More)
The levels of serum inflammatory cytokines and the activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) in heart tissues in response to different frequencies of intermittent hypoxia (IH) and the antioxidant tempol were evaluated. Wistar rats (64 males, 200-220 g) were randomly divided into 6 experimental groups and 2 control(More)