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The prefrontal cortex guides behaviors, thoughts, and feelings using representational knowledge, i.e., working memory. These fundamental cognitive abilities subserve the so-called executive functions: the ability to inhibit inappropriate behaviors and thoughts, regulate our attention, monitor our actions, and plan and organize for the future.(More)
Cortical plasticity is thought to be important for the establishment, consolidation, and retrieval of permanent memory. Hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), a cellular mechanism of learning and memory, requires the activation of glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. In particular, it has been suggested that NR2A-containing NMDA receptors are(More)
It is well known that initial consolidation requires de novo gene transcription and protein synthesis in order for memory to become stable. The consolidated memory again becomes labile and temporarily sensitive to disruption when retrieved, requiring a reconsolidation process to become permanent. Although it is well established that glucocorticoid receptors(More)
Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and its downstream targets, including Akt (also known as protein kinase B, PKB), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), the 70-kDa ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6k), and the eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E)-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1), may play important roles in long-term synaptic plasticity and memory in many brain(More)
SNAP-25 is a synaptosomal protein of 25 kDa, a key component of synaptic vesicle-docking/fusion machinery, and plays a critical role in exocytosis and neurotransmitter release. We previously reported that SNAP-25 in the hippocampal CA1 region is involved in consolidation of contextual fear memory and water-maze spatial memory (Hou et al. European J(More)
Stimulation of alpha2-, especially alpha2A-adrenoceptor (AR), in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) produces a beneficial effect on cognitive functions such as working memory. Alpha2-adrenergic agonists like clonidine and guanfacine have been used experimentally and clinically for treatment of psychiatric disorders such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder(More)
It is known that beta-adrenoceptor (AR) in the basolateral nucleus of amygdala (BLA) plays an essential role in fear memory formation. However, the cellular and subcellular distributions of beta1- and beta2-ARs in the BLA and their roles in fear memory formation are poorly understood. Here, we report that both beta1- and beta2-ARs are predominantly(More)
The physiological effects of α₁-adrenoceptors (α₁-ARs) have been examined in many brain regions. However, little is known about the mechanism of modulation on synaptic transmission by α₁-ARs in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). The present study investigated how α₁-AR activation regulates glutamatergic synaptic transmission in layer V/VI pyramidal cells(More)
Long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampal CA1 region requires the activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs). Studies using genetic and pharmacological approaches have reported inconsistent results of the requirement of NR2B-containing NMDARs in LTP in the CA1 region. Pharmacological studies showed that NR2B-containing NMDARs are not(More)
A previous study showed that intra-CAl infusion of the beta-adrenergic antagonist DL-propranolol interfered with consolidation of memory for contextual fear conditioning (J.-Z. Ji, X.-M. Wang, & B.-M. Li, 2003). The present study investigated the effect of similarly administered DL-propranolol on consolidation of spatial memory for the water maze.(More)