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The prefrontal cortex guides behaviors, thoughts, and feelings using representational knowledge, i.e., working memory. These fundamental cognitive abilities subserve the so-called executive functions: the ability to inhibit inappropriate behaviors and thoughts, regulate our attention, monitor our actions, and plan and organize for the future.(More)
Cortical plasticity is thought to be important for the establishment, consolidation, and retrieval of permanent memory. Hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), a cellular mechanism of learning and memory, requires the activation of glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. In particular, it has been suggested that NR2A-containing NMDA receptors are(More)
BACKGROUND Stimulation of alpha-2 adrenoceptors in the monkey or rat prefrontal cortex (PFC) has been known to improve spatial working memory (SWM) and stimulation of alpha-1 adrenoceptors in the rat PFC has been reported to impair SWM. The present study attempted to replicate in monkey the rat experiments on alpha-1 adrenoceptor stimulation. METHODS The(More)
The effects of systemically administered or iontophoretically applied clonidine (alpha-2 adrenergic agonist) and iontophoretically applied yohimbine (alpha-2 adrenergic antagonist) were examined on prefrontal cortical (PFC) neurons related to spatial working memory (SWM). Systemically administered clonidine (0.04 mg/kg) enhanced SWM-related PFC neuronal(More)
It is well known that initial consolidation requires de novo gene transcription and protein synthesis in order for memory to become stable. The consolidated memory again becomes labile and temporarily sensitive to disruption when retrieved, requiring a reconsolidation process to become permanent. Although it is well established that glucocorticoid receptors(More)
The effects of clonidine (a selective agonist for alpha-2 receptor) and B-HT920 (an agonist for both alpha-2 and D2 receptors) were examined iontophoretically on neurons in the prefrontal cortex of three monkeys performing a visual discrimination task with GO and NO-GO responses. A total of 212 task-related neurons were sampled, of which 120 neurons were(More)
BACKGROUND Many neuropsychiatric disorders are associated with high levels of noradrenergic turnover, and most antipsychotic medications have alpha-1 adrenoceptor blocking properties, yet little is known about alpha-1 influences on higher cortical function. METHODS The alpha-1 adrenergic agonist, phenylephrine, was infused into the prefrontal cortex (PFC)(More)
Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and its downstream targets, including Akt (also known as protein kinase B, PKB), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), the 70-kDa ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6k), and the eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E)-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1), may play important roles in long-term synaptic plasticity and memory in many brain(More)
SNAP-25 is a synaptosomal protein of 25 kDa, a key component of synaptic vesicle-docking/fusion machinery, and plays a critical role in exocytosis and neurotransmitter release. We previously reported that SNAP-25 in the hippocampal CA1 region is involved in consolidation of contextual fear memory and water-maze spatial memory (Hou et al. European J(More)