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Phosphorus (P) loss from agricultural land in surface runoff can contribute to eutrophication of surface water. This study was conducted to evaluate a range of environmental and agronomic soil P tests as indicators of potential soil surface runoff dissolved reactive P (DRP) losses from Ontario soils. The soil samples (0- to 20-cm depth) were collected from(More)
Knowledge about the prevalence and diversity of antibiotic resistance genes in soil bacteria communities is required to evaluate the possibility and ecological consequences of the transfer of these genes carried by genetically modified (GM) plants to soil bacteria. The neomycin phosphotransferase gene (nptII) conferring resistance to kanamycin and neomycin(More)
Composting has been used for disposal of poultry carcasses and manure following outbreaks caused by avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV), but methods are needed to test for survival of the viruses in compost to ensure biosecurity. Methods developed in the present study include extracting viruses from compost and purifying viral RNA.(More)
Detection of genetically modified (GM) traits in corn (Zea mays L.) is urgently needed for preservation of genetic identity and marketing GM products. A laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency, accuracy, and reliability of different analytical methods to detect GM traits in corn. Samples with known fractions of GM concentrations (Bacillus(More)
Nitrogen (N) fertilizer rates applied spatially according to crop requirements can improve the efficiency of N use. The study compares the performance of two commercial sensors, the Yara N-Sensor/FieldScan (Yara International ASA, Germany) and the GreenSeeker (NTech Industries Inc., Ukiah, California, USA), for assessing the status of N in spring wheat(More)
BACKGROUND Optical sensing is a potential tool to estimate plant N status, but soil water deficits may interefere with forming a clear relationship. A greenhouse study was conducted with oat plants treated with three water regimes and four N levels to determine whether optical sensing could be used to estimate leaf N and relative water content (RWC). (More)
Plant herbivores often stimulate lignin deposition in injured plant tissue, but it is not known whether corn (Zea mays L.) reacts to European corn borer (ECB, Ostrinia nubilalis Hubner) injury in this manner. Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) genetic modification is also reported to affect lignin in corn. This study evaluated the effects of ECB injury and the Bt(More)
In order to make regulations that safeguard food and the environment, an understanding of the fate oftransgenes from genetically modified (GM) plants is of crucial importance. A compost experiment including mature transgenic corn plants and seeds of event Bt 176 (Zea mays L.) was conducted to trace the fate of the transgene cryIA(b) during the period of(More)
We examined three different-ploidy wheat species to elucidate the development of aboveground architecture and its domesticated mechanism under environment-controlled field conditions. Architecture parameters including leaf, stem, spike and canopy morphology were measured together with biomass allocation, leaf net photosynthetic rate and instantaneous water(More)
BACKGROUND The eco-physiological mechanism of wheat yield loss resulting from chilling stress is a fundamental scientific issue. However, previous studies have focused on hexaploid wheats, and few studies on the morphological and physiological plasticity of wheat plants. Six different wheat genotypes were tested under chilling stress to investigate the(More)