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The protein Tir (translocated intimin receptor) in enteric bacteria shares sequence similarity with the host cellular immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motifs (ITIMs). Despite the importance of Tir in pedestal formation, relatively little is known about the role of Tir and its ITIMs in the regulation of the host immune response. Here we demonstrate(More)
Task-based fMRI (tfMRI) has been widely used to explore functional brain networks via predefined stimulus paradigm in the fMRI scan. Traditionally, the general linear model (GLM) has been a dominant approach to detect task-evoked networks. However, GLM focuses on task-evoked or event-evoked brain responses and possibly ignores the intrinsic brain functions.(More)
Berberine, an alkaloid derivative from Berberis vulgaris L., has been used extensively in traditional Chinese medicine to treat diarrhea and diabetes, but the underlying mechanisms for treating diabetes are not fully understood. Recent studies suggested that berberine has many beneficial biological effects, including anti-inflammation. Because type 1(More)
Fiber clustering is a prerequisite step towards tract-based analysis of white mater integrity via diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in various clinical neuroscience applications. Many methods reported in the literature used geometric or anatomic information for fiber clustering. This paper proposes a novel method that uses functional coherence as the criterion(More)
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the most virulent pathogen among enteroviruses that cause hand, foot and mouth disease in children but rarely in adults. The mechanisms that determine the age-dependent susceptibility remain largely unclear. Here, we found that the paucity of invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells together with immaturity of the immune system was(More)
Pleural tuberculosis (TB), together with lymphatic TB, constitutes more than half of all extrapulmonary cases. Pleural effusions (PEs) in TB are representative of lymphocytic PEs which are dominated by T cells. However, the mechanism underlying T lymphocytes homing and accumulation in PEs is still incompletely understood. Here we performed a comparative(More)
Cytokine induction in response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection is critical for pathogen control, by (i) mediating innate immune effector functions and (ii) instructing specific adaptive immunity. IL-10 is an important anti-inflammatory cytokine involved in pathogenesis of tuberculosis (TB). Here, we show that TLR3, a sensor of extracellular(More)
Clustering streamline fibers derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data into functionally meaningful bundles with group-wise correspondences across individuals and populations has been a fundamental step for tract-based analysis of white matter integrity and brain connectivity modeling. Many approaches of fiber clustering reported in the literature so(More)
As the size of brain imaging data such as fMRI grows explosively, it provides us with unprecedented and abundant information about the brain. How to reduce the size of fMRI data but not lose much information becomes a more and more pressing issue. Recent literature studies tried to deal with it by dictionary learning and sparse representation methods,(More)
Immune responses to pathogens are regulated by immune receptors containing either an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) or an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM). The important diarrheal pathogen enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) require delivery and insertion of the bacterial translocated intimin receptor (Tir)(More)