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A systematic review, covering fabrication of nanoscale patterns by laser interference lithography (LIL) and their applications for optical devices is provided. LIL is a patterning method. It is a simple, quick process over a large area without using a mask. LIL is a powerful technique for the definition of large-area, nanometer-scale, periodically patterned(More)
Electromagnetic-actuated robotic systems have been studied recently for special purposes. Because these systems use external magnetic fields to control their robots, the robots can have simple structures and move with much freedom. In particular, these electromagnetic actuation (EMA) systems are being widely adopted for the actuation of biomedical(More)
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