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Transcription factors involved in the specification and differentiation of neurons often continue to be expressed in the adult brain, but remarkably little is known about their late functions. Nurr1, one such transcription factor, is essential for early differentiation of midbrain dopamine (mDA) neurons but continues to be expressed into adulthood. In(More)
Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and its close relative neurturin are currently in clinical trials for neuroprotection in patients with Parkinson disease (PD). However, in animal models of PD, GDNF fails to protect nigral dopamine (DA) neurons against α-synuclein-induced neurodegeneration. Using viral vector delivery of human wild-type(More)
Developmental transcription factors important in early neuron specification and differentiation often remain expressed in the adult brain. However, how these transcription factors function to mantain appropriate neuronal identities in adult neurons and how transcription factor dysregulation may contribute to disease remain largely unknown. The transcription(More)
Induced expression of neuroprotective genes is essential for maintaining neuronal integrity after stressful insults to the brain. Here we show that NR4A nuclear orphan receptors are induced after excitotoxic and oxidative stress in neurons, up-regulate neuroprotective genes, and increase neuronal survival. Moreover, we show that NR4A proteins are induced by(More)
Degeneration of dopamine neurons in the midbrain causes symptoms of the movement disorder, Parkinson disease. Dopamine neurons are generated from proliferating progenitor cells localized in the embryonic ventral midbrain. However, it remains unclear for how long cells with dopamine progenitor character are retained and if there is any potential for(More)
UNLABELLED Parkinson's disease (PD) is a movement disorder characterized by a progressive loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. Restoration of dopamine transmission by l-DOPA relieves symptoms of PD but causes dyskinesia. Trace Amine-Associated Receptor 1 (TAAR1) modulates dopaminergic transmission, but its role in experimental Parkinsonism and l-DOPA(More)
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