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The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that muscle fibers are protected from undue atrophy in hibernating dauria ground squirrels (Spermophilus dauricus, Brandt). Muscle mass, fiber cross sectional area (CSA, video analysis) and fiber type distribution (m-ATPase staining) were determined in extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle from(More)
Cortical neuroplasticity alterations are implicated in the pathophysiology of chronic orofacial pain. However, the relationship between critical cortex excitability and orofacial pain maintenance has not been fully elucidated. We recently demonstrated a top-down corticospinal descending pain modulation pathway from the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) to the(More)
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a serine-threonine protein kinase, integrates extracellular signals, thereby modulating several physiological and pathological processes, including pain. Previous studies have suggested that rapamycin (an mTOR inhibitor) can attenuate nociceptive behaviors in many pain models, most likely at the spinal cord level.(More)
Angina pectoris is a common clinical symptom that often results from myocardial infarction. One typical characteristic of angina pectoris is that the pain does not match the severity of the myocardial ischemia. One possible explanation is that the intensity of cardiac nociceptive information could be dynamically regulated by certain brain areas. As an(More)
The ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG) is an important brain area, in which 5-HTergic neurons play key roles in descending pain modulation. It has been proposed that opioid peptides within the vlPAG can excite the 5-HTergic neurons by alleviating tonic inhibition from GABAergic neurons, the so-called disinhibitory effect. However, no direct(More)
Motor impairment is one of the serious side-effects of morphine, which is an exogenous agonist of the μ-opioid receptor (MOR) as well as a widely used analgesic drug in clinical practice for chronic pain treatment. Endomorphins (EMs, including EM-1 and EM-2), the most effective and specific endogenous agonists of the MOR, exert more potent analgesia in(More)
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