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Recently it has been shown that epithelial cell expression of the estrogen receptor (ER) and that of the proliferation-associated marker Ki-67 are almost mutually exclusive in the normal premenopausal human breast but that coexpression frequently occurs in estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancers. This coexpression may indicate disordered expression(More)
As oestrogen is associated with most of the epidemiological risk factors for breast cancer, the number and distribution of oestrogen receptor positive (ER+) cells could have a bearing on the development of the disease. ER+ cells were thus studied in the normal breast and in the spectrum of in situ proliferations which range from non-atypical hyperplasia to(More)
BACKGROUND In normal breast tissue the oestrogen receptor (ER) and the proliferation associated antigen Ki67 are negatively associated, indicating that ER+ cells are non-dividing, or that the receptor is downregulated as cells enter cycle. This relation is completely or partially lost in many ER+ breast cancers and in in situ proliferations associated with(More)
In normal breast, there is a negative association between expression of oestrogen receptor (ER) and the proliferation marker Ki67, indicating that ER-positive (ER+) cells do not divide, or that the receptor is down-regulated when they do so. However, dual staining has been found in carcinomas and precancerous lesions, indicating that abnormal regulation of(More)
Cyclin D1 is associated with cell cycle regulation and has more recently been shown to stimulate the transcriptional functions of the oestrogen receptor (ER). Furthermore, in normal breast there is a negative association between expression of ER and the proliferation marker Ki67 indicating that either ER positive cells are non-dividing or that the receptor(More)
BACKGROUND A major challenge of cancer research is to identify key molecules which are responsible for the development of the malignant metastatic phenotype, the major cause of cancer death. METHODS Four subtracted cDNA libraries were constructed representing mRNAs differentially expressed between benign and malignant human breast tumour cells and between(More)
The development of an invasive recurrence following treatment for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) converts a non-fatal disease to one associated with mortality. To date, no pathological or molecular features have been found to predict for the type of recurrence. Previous studies have suggested that in DCIS angiogenesis may be an important factor in(More)
Hyperplasia of usual type (HUT) may be an early precursor of breast carcinoma and has been shown to contain molecular and genetic abnormalities previously seen in more advanced breast lesions, such as allelic imbalance (AI) and coexpression of estrogen receptor-alpha (ER) and the proliferation marker Ki67. We have examined hyperplastic and other areas from(More)
BACKGROUND To date, research in the role of angiogenesis in cancer has focused mainly on invasive diseases. Measurement of the intra-tumoural microvessel density (MVD) has also been found to be an independent prognostic marker. More recently, natural angiogenic inhibitors and pharmacological drugs capable of suppressing specific stages of neovascularisation(More)