Balvinder S. Shoker

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As oestrogen is associated with most of the epidemiological risk factors for breast cancer, the number and distribution of oestrogen receptor positive (ER+) cells could have a bearing on the development of the disease. ER+ cells were thus studied in the normal breast and in the spectrum of in situ proliferations which range from non-atypical hyperplasia to(More)
Recently it has been shown that epithelial cell expression of the estrogen receptor (ER) and that of the proliferation-associated marker Ki-67 are almost mutually exclusive in the normal premenopausal human breast but that coexpression frequently occurs in estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancers. This coexpression may indicate disordered expression(More)
BACKGROUND In normal breast tissue the oestrogen receptor (ER) and the proliferation associated antigen Ki67 are negatively associated, indicating that ER+ cells are non-dividing, or that the receptor is downregulated as cells enter cycle. This relation is completely or partially lost in many ER+ breast cancers and in in situ proliferations associated with(More)
Cyclin D1 is associated with cell cycle regulation and has more recently been shown to stimulate the transcriptional functions of the oestrogen receptor (ER). Furthermore, in normal breast there is a negative association between expression of ER and the proliferation marker Ki67 indicating that either ER positive cells are non-dividing or that the receptor(More)
In normal breast, there is a negative association between expression of oestrogen receptor (ER) and the proliferation marker Ki67, indicating that ER-positive (ER+) cells do not divide, or that the receptor is down-regulated when they do so. However, dual staining has been found in carcinomas and precancerous lesions, indicating that abnormal regulation of(More)
The development of an invasive recurrence following treatment for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) converts a non-fatal disease to one associated with mortality. To date, no pathological or molecular features have been found to predict for the type of recurrence. Previous studies have suggested that in DCIS angiogenesis may be an important factor in(More)
BACKGROUND A major challenge of cancer research is to identify key molecules which are responsible for the development of the malignant metastatic phenotype, the major cause of cancer death. METHODS Four subtracted cDNA libraries were constructed representing mRNAs differentially expressed between benign and malignant human breast tumour cells and between(More)
The frequency with which ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is detected has increased greatly since the introduction of mammographic screening. The number of treatment options has also increased and mastectomy has been extensively replaced by local excision with or without radiotherapy. DCIS is generally unicentric, as evidenced by the rarity with which it is(More)
Up to 50% of recurrences of ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast are associated with invasive carcinoma but no pathological or molecular features have yet been found to predict for the development of invasive disease. For a tumour to invade, it requires the formation of new blood vessels. Previous studies have described a vascular rim around ducts(More)