Balu R Chakravarthy

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Ca2+ and Ca(2+)-binding proteins are involved in running the cell cycle. Ca2+ spikes and signals from integrin-activated focal adhesion complexes and Ca2+ receptors on the cell surface along with cyclic AMP begin the cycle of cyclin-dependent protein kinases (PKs). These transiently expressed PKs stimulate the coordinate expression of DNA-replicating(More)
NMDA receptor antagonists, such as (+)-5-methyl-10, 11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo [a,d] cyclohepten-5,10-imine maleate (MK-801), potently block glutamate-induced neuronal death in myriad in vitro cell models and effectively attenuate ischemic damage in vivo. In this report, a novel role for MK-801 and other NMDA receptor antagonists in preconditioning neurons to(More)
The pan-specific p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR)) is believed to play an important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). It is involved in mediating amyloid-β (Aβ) toxicity and stimulating amyloidogenesis. In addition, we have recently shown that stimulating cultured SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells with Aβ(42) increases the level of(More)
Cerebrovascular angiopathy affects late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) brains by possibly increasing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). A expression, thereby stimulating endothelial cell proliferation and migration. Indeed, VEGF-A gene upregulation, with increased VEGF-A protein content of reactive astrocytes and microglia, occurs in LOAD brains,(More)
Although organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHSCs) are used to study function within the hippocampus, the effect of maintenance in vitro upon protein expression is not fully understood. Therefore, we examined developmental changes in cultures prepared from P8 rats and maintained on porous membranes between medium and atmosphere. Between 7 and 28 days(More)
The protein kinase C (PKC) activation domain of the parathyroid hormone (PTH) was believed to be the 28-34 region of the molecule. We have now shown that PTH-(29-32) is the smallest PTH fragment that can stimulate significantly membrane-associated PKC activity in ROS 17/2 rat osteosarcoma cells. As was previously shown for full-length PTH-(1-84) and the(More)
Evidence is accumulating that suggests that Ca2+-calmodulin (Ca2+-CaM) and the protein kinase Cs (PKCs) obstruct each other's actions because of the embedding of PKC phosphorylation sites in CaM or Ca2+-CaM-binding domains of a growing number of crucial substrates in neurons (and other cells). These substrates include the CaM storage proteins (neurogranin,(More)
PTH is regarded conventionally as a catabolic hormone that stimulates osteoclastic resorption of bone. However, it has been known since 1932 that intermittent pulses of PTH stimulate bone formation in animals and humans. PTH independently activates two signal mechanisms: one that stimulates adenylyl cyclase and one that stimulates protein kinase C (PKC).(More)
A rapid loss of protein kinase C (PKC) activity is a prognostic feature of the lethal damage inflicted on neurons by cerebral ischemia in vivo and by hypoxic and excitotoxic insults in vitro. However, it is not known if this inactivation of PKC is incidental or is an essential part of the neurodegenerative process driven by such insults. To address this(More)
The activation of the multifunctional cell signalling enzymes, the protein kinase Cs (PKCs), is generally thought to result from the translocation of inactive cytosolic enzymes to activation sites in cell membranes. However, recent studies suggest that PKCs may also be stimulated in cells by processes independent of translocation. One possible mechanism is(More)