Baljit S. Moonga

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Postmenopausal osteoporosis, a global public health problem, has for decades been attributed solely to declining estrogen levels. Although FSH levels rise sharply in parallel, a direct effect of FSH on the skeleton has never been explored. We show that FSH is required for hypogonadal bone loss. Neither FSHbeta nor FSH receptor (FSHR) null mice have bone(More)
Past knowledge and the recent developments on the formation, activation and mode of action of osteoclasts, with particular reference to the regulation of each individual step, have been reviewed. The following conclusions of consensus have emerged. 1. The resorption of bone is the result of successive steps that can be regulated individually. 2. Osteoclast(More)
Nucleoplasmic calcium ions (Ca2+) influence nuclear functions as critical as gene transcription, apoptosis, DNA repair, topoisomerase activation and polymerase unfolding. Although both inositol trisphosphate receptors and ryanodine receptors, types of Ca2+ channel, are present in the nuclear membrane, their role in the homeostasis of nuclear Ca2+ remains(More)
It is well established that zinc, an essential trace element, plays an important role in growth and stimulates bone formation. However, the effects of zinc on bone resorption have received little attention. We studied its effects on isolated rat osteoclasts. Unexpectedly, osteoclasts were exquisitely sensitive to zinc, with a significant decrease in bone(More)
The osteoclast is unique in its capacity to resorb bone. An unbalanced increase in this activity causes osteoporosis, a crippling bone disease that poses a major public health problem. Despite this, our understanding of osteoclast regulation is very limited. Calcitonin is the only known physiological inhibitor of osteoclast function. We demonstrate here for(More)
Two of the most commonly used immunosuppressants, cyclosporine A and tacrolimus (FK506), inhibit the activity of a ubiquitously expressed Ca(2+)/calmodulin-sensitive phosphatase, calcineurin. Because both drugs also cause profound bone loss in humans and in animal models, we explored whether calcineurin played a role in regulating skeletal remodeling. We(More)
An increasing number of cell types appear to detect changes in the extracellular Ca2+ concentration and and accordingly modify their function. We review recent evidence for the existence and function of such a mechanism in the osteoclast. Elevated external [Ca2+] in the mM range reduces bone resorption and results in motile changes in the cells. These(More)
We describe a physiologically significant mechanism through which interleukin-6 (IL-6) and a rising ambient Ca2+ interact to regulate osteoclastic bone resorption. VOXEL-based confocal microscopy of nonpermeabilized osteoclasts incubated with anti- IL-6 receptor antibodies revealed intense, strictly peripheral plasma membrane fluorescence. IL-6 receptor(More)
The calcitonin/CGRP multigene complex encodes a family of peptides: calcitonin, its C-terminal flanking peptide, katacalcin, and a third novel peptide, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). The 32-amino acid peptide calcitonin inhibits the osteoclast, thereby conserving skeletal mass during periods of potential calcium lack, such as pregnancy, growth, and(More)
Calcitonin inhibits osteoclastic bone resorption and its action involves two separate acute effects on the osteoclast, both essential to the action of the hormone: abolition of cell motility (Q) and marked cellular retraction (R). The former was mimicked by dibutyryl cyclic AMP and cholera toxin and the latter by pertussis toxin, ionomycin and increases in(More)