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Postmenopausal osteoporosis, a global public health problem, has for decades been attributed solely to declining estrogen levels. Although FSH levels rise sharply in parallel, a direct effect of FSH on the skeleton has never been explored. We show that FSH is required for hypogonadal bone loss. Neither FSHbeta nor FSH receptor (FSHR) null mice have bone(More)
The osteoclast is unique in its capacity to resorb bone. An unbalanced increase in this activity causes osteoporosis, a crippling bone disease that poses a major public health problem. Despite this, our understanding of osteoclast regulation is very limited. Calcitonin is the only known physiological inhibitor of osteoclast function. We demonstrate here for(More)
An increasing number of cell types appear to detect changes in the extracellular Ca2+ concentration and and accordingly modify their function. We review recent evidence for the existence and function of such a mechanism in the osteoclast. Elevated external [Ca2+] in the mM range reduces bone resorption and results in motile changes in the cells. These(More)
The osteoclast is unique in its ability to resorb bone, and excessive osteoclastic activity has been implicated in osteoporosis, Paget disease of bone, rheumatoid arthritis, and the growth of metastases in bone. The activity of this cell is controlled by the main circulating inhibitor, calcitonin, in association with locally produced modulators. We show(More)
We have studied the effects of glucocorticoids on the activity and viability of neonatal rat osteoclasts in vitro. In the bone slice assay, glucocorticoids caused a dose-dependent decrease in the amount of bone resorbed, which was accompanied by a parallel decrease in osteoclast number. Loss of osteoclasts was due to their death, which occurred by the(More)
1. Osteoclasts are known to secrete acid phosphatase, an iron-containing phosphohydrolase. We have investigated (a) the possibility that acid phosphatase has a functional role in bone resorption and (b) the factors controlling enzyme secretion from isolated rat osteoclasts. 2. Osteoclasts were freshly disaggregated from neonatal rat long bones and dispersed(More)
Herein we demonstrate that replicative cellular senescence in vitro results in sharply reduced inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3)) receptor levels, reduced mitogen-evoked IP(3) formation and Ca(2+) release, and Ca(2+) store depletion. Human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs) underwent either 30 mean population doublings [mean population doublings (MPDs) thymidine(More)
We recently described the direct effects of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) on bone and suggested that the bone loss in hyperthyroidism, hitherto attributed solely to elevated thyroid hormone levels, could at least in part arise from accompanying decrements in serum TSH. Recent studies on both mice and human subjects provide compelling evidence that(More)
Earlier studies have demonstrated that a high (mM) extracellular Ca2+ concentration triggers intracellular [Ca2+] signals with a consequent inhibition of bone resorptive activity. We now report that micromolar concentrations of the divalent cation, Ni2+, elicited rapid and concentration-dependent elevations of cytosolic [Ca2+]. The peak change in cytosolic(More)
Past knowledge and the recent developments on the formation, activation and mode of action of osteoclasts, with particular reference to the regulation of each individual step, have been reviewed. The following conclusions of consensus have emerged. 1. The resorption of bone is the result of successive steps that can be regulated individually. 2. Osteoclast(More)