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Copper perchlorate is found to be a heterogeneous catalyst for an efficient and greener synthesis of 4-substituted 2H-chromen-2-ones via von Pechmann condensation of substituted phenols and beta-keto esters in solventless media with excellent yields using ultrasound irradiation. The present methodology offers several advantages such as excellent yields,(More)
Diverse instruments have been used to encourage developing agriculture. In the process, billions of dollars have been spent on providing incentives to peasants. Given scarce resources, an important concern has been the issue of what policy instruments to emphasize. In this regard, useful policy information can be gleaned from the role of expected profits(More)
Copper perchlorate hexahydrate as an efficient catalyst was used for the synthesis of polyhydroquinolines by four-component condensation reaction of aldehyde, ethyl acetoacetate, dimedone, and ammonium acetate in excellent yields and short reaction times at room temperature under ultrasound irradiation. This novel synthetic method is especially favoured(More)
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