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Do changes in neuronal structure underlie cortical plasticity? Here we used time-lapse two-photon microscopy of pyramidal neurons in layer 2/3 of developing rat barrel cortex to image the structural dynamics of dendritic spines and filopodia. We found that these protrusions were highly motile: spines and filopodia appeared, disappeared or changed shape over(More)
Multifocal multiphoton microscopy (MMM) enhances imaging speed by parallelization. It is not well understood why the imaging depth of MMM is significantly shorter than conventional single-focus multiphoton microscopy (SMM). In this report, we show that the need for spatially resolved detectors in MMM results in a system that is more sensitive to the(More)
To detect subtle changes in neuronal morphology in response to changes in experience, one must image neurons at high resolution in vivo over time scales of minutes to days. We accomplished this by infecting postmitotic neurons in rat and mouse barrel cortex with a Sindbis virus carrying the gene for enhanced green fluorescent protein. Visualized with(More)
Although dendritic spikes are generally thought to be restricted to the distal apical dendrite, we know very little about the possible modulatory mechanisms that set the spatial limits of dendritic spikes. Our experiments demonstrated that high-frequency trains of backpropagating action potentials avoided filtering in the apical dendrite and initiated(More)
Although interactions between backpropagating action potentials and synaptic stimulations have been extensively studied in pyramidal neurons, dendritic propagation and the summation of these signals in interneurons are not nearly as well known. In this study, two-photon imaging was used to explore the basic properties of dendritic calcium signaling in CA1(More)
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) of the hippocampus have been thought to contribute to cognitive enhancement by cigarette smoking. Although positive modulation on cognitive functions is linked to the smoked, low-dose nicotine, the cellular correlate behind this modulation is unknown. It has been accepted that cellular mechanisms underlying plastic(More)
Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) belong to a family of ligand-gated channels closely related to but distinct from the muscle nAChRs. Recent progress in neurochemical and pharmacological methods supports the hypothesis of presynaptically located nAChRs on axon terminals and indicates that the major effect of nAChR is the modulation rather(More)
It was recently shown in the olfactory bulb (OB) that the response to olfactory stimulation might be related to local reinforcement mechanisms involved in discrimination of different odors. Therefore, it seemed interesting to study the effects of several drugs of abuse on the release of dopamine (DA) in the OB. Nicotine, amphetamine,(More)
The alkaloid derivative vinpocetine (14-ethoxycarbonyl-(3alpha,16alpha-ethyl)-14,15-eburnamine; Cavinton) has a well known beneficial effect on brain function in hypoxic and ischemic conditions. While it increases CNS blood flow and improves cellular metabolism, relatively little is known about vinpocetine's underlying molecular mechanisms on the single(More)
In the present study we investigated the effect of different nicotinic agonists (dimethylphenyl-piperazinium-iodide (DMPP), (-)nicotine, cytisine, (-)-lobeline, and (-)epibatidine) and antagonists (mecamylamine and dihydro-beta-erythroidine) on the release of [3H]5-HT from hippocampal slices. The nicotinic agonists DMPP and lobeline and electrical field(More)