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The striking growth in the trade share of output is one of the most important developments in the world economy since World War II. Two features of this growth present challenges to the standard trade models. First, the growth is generally thought to have been generated by falling tariff barriers worldwide. But tariff barriers have decreased by only about(More)
  • Martin Lettau, Sydney C. Ludvigson, +9 authors Robert Whitelaw
  • 2004
Aggregate stock prices, relative to virtually any indicator of fundamental value, soared to unprecedented levels in the 1990s. Even today, after the market declines since 2000, they remain well above historical norms. Why? We consider one particular explanation: a fall in macroeconomic risk, or the volatility of the aggregate economy. Empirically, we find a(More)
A leading explanation of aggregate stock market behavior suggests that assets are priced as if there were a representative investor whose utility is a power function of the difference between aggregate consumption and a " habitt level, where the habit is some function of lagged and (possibly) contemporaneous consumption. But theory does not provide precise(More)
We measure the return to capital directly from the NIPA data and examine the return implications of the real business cycle model. We construct a quarterly time series of the after-tax return to business capital. Its volatility is considerably smaller than that of S&P 500 returns. The standard business cycle model captures almost 50% of the volatility in(More)
Government policies that impose restrictions on the size of large establishments or firms, or promote small ones, are widespread across countries. In this paper, we develop a framework to systematically study policies of this class. We study a simple growth model with an endogenous size distribution of production units. We parameterize this model to account(More)
The 1990's witnessed a historically unprecedented number of personal bankruptcy …lings. In response, Congressional debate over bankruptcy law has recently led to sev­ eral proposals aimed at making it more di¢cult to exempt wealth in a bankruptcy. In this paper, I evaluate uniform exemption policy primarily within the context of the recent congressional(More)
OBJECTIVE Hepatic triglyceride is closely associated with hepatic insulin resistance and is known to be decreased by thiazolididinediones. We studied the effect of pioglitazone on hepatic triglyceride content and the consequent effect on postprandial endogenous glucose production (EGP) in type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Ten subjects with type(More)