Balaji Balasa

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The nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse spontaneously develops T cell-dependent autoimmune diabetes. Here, we investigate the role of CD40 ligand (CD40L)-CD40 costimulation in the initiation and progression of this disease. Anti-CD40L mAb treatment of 3- to 4-wk-old NOD females (the age at which insulitis typically begins) completely prevented the insulitis and(More)
Quantitative and qualitative defects in CD1-restricted natural killer T cells have been reported in several autoimmune-prone strains of mice, including the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse. These defects are believed to be associated with the emergence of spontaneous autoimmunity. Here we demonstrate that both CD1d-null NOD and CD1d-null NOD/BDC2.5 T cell(More)
The nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse develops spontaneous T-cell-dependent autoimmune diabetes. We tested here whether vaccination of NOD mice with a plasmid DNA encoding glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), an initial target islet antigen of autoimmune T cell repertoire, would modulate their diabetes. Our results showed that vaccination of young or old female(More)
Experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG), a disorder of the neuromuscular junction, is mediated by autoantibodies against muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR). The roles of IFN-gamma (Th1) and IL-4 (Th2) cytokines in the initiation and progression of this disease are not fully understood. Recently, we have demonstrated that IFN-gamma is(More)
Several death-signaling or death-inducing molecules have been implicated in beta cell destruction, including Fas, perforin, and TNFR-1. In this study, we examined the role of each death-signaling molecule in the IL-10-accelerated diabetes of nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. Groups of IL-10-NOD mice, each deficient in either Fas, perforin, or TNFR-1 molecules,(More)
IL-10 is essential for an early phase of diabetes in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice, but later becomes protective against its development. The mechanism by which IL-10 mediates the pathway to diabetes in these mice is unknown. Herein, we dissected the cellular and costimulation requirements for diabetes in transgenic (tg) NOD mice that expressed IL-10 in(More)
Epidemiological studies have associated coxsackie B virus (CBV) with the development of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) in humans. Infections of genetically susceptible mice with CBV strain 4 (CB4) induce autoimmune diabetes. Herein, we demonstrate that in mice, CB4 infection of insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells does not directly cause beta(More)
Experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG) is an animal model of human myasthenia gravis (MG). In mice, EAMG is induced by immunization with Torpedo californica acetylcholine receptor (AChR) in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). However, the role of cytokines in the pathogenesis of EAMG is not clear. Because EAMG is an antibody-mediated disease, it is(More)
When immunological tolerance breaks down, autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas can cause insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. We previously showed that transgenic nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice expressing IL-4 in the pancreas (NOD-IL-4 mice) were protected from insulitis and diabetes. Here we have characterized the avoidance(More)
The infiltration of monocytes represents an important early event in the development of autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice. Given that chemokines are key regulators of leukocyte trafficking, we examined the requirement for the chemokine receptors beta(CC)-chemokine receptor-5 (CCR5) and beta(CC)-chemokine receptor-2 (CCR2), which recruit monocytes, in disease(More)