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Heparan sulfate (HS) is a sulfated polysaccharide present on cell surfaces and in the extracellular matrix. Accumulating evidence shows that HS plays key roles in many biological systems by interacting with various proteins in a structural-specific manner. Due to technical difficulties, however, the understanding of critical functional groups on HS for(More)
Heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans are crucial to numerous biological processes and pathological conditions, but to date only a few HS structures have been synthesized and characterized with regard to structure-function relationships. Because HS proteoglycans are highly diverse in structure, there are substantial limitations on their synthesis by classical(More)
Heparan sulfate (HS) polysaccharides interact with numerous proteins at the cell surface and orchestrate many different biological functions. Though many functions of HS are well established, only a few specific structures can be attributed to HS functions. The extreme diversity of HS makes chemical synthesis of specific bioactive HS structures a cumbersome(More)
Heparanomics is the study of all the biologically active oligosaccharide domain structures in the entire heparanome and the nature of the interactions among these domains and their protein ligands. Structural elucidation of heparan sulfate and heparin oligosaccharides is a major obstacle in advancing structure-function relationships and heparanomics. There(More)
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling begins with the formation of a ternary complex of FGF, FGF receptor (FGFR), and heparan sulfate (HS). Multiple models have been proposed for the ternary complex. However, major discrepancies exist among those models, and none of these models have evaluated the functional importance of the interacting regions on the(More)
Serotonin (5-HT) is a multifunctional signaling molecule that plays different roles in a concentration-dependent manner. We demonstrated that elevated levels of plasma 5-HT accelerate platelet aggregation resulting in a hypercoagulable state in which the platelet surface becomes occupied by several glycoproteins. Here we study the novel hypothesis that an(More)
Proteoglycans (PGs) are composed of a protein moiety and a complex glycosaminoglycan (GAG) polysaccharide moiety. GAG chains are responsible for various biological activities. GAG chains are covalently attached to serine residues of the core protein. The first step in PG biosynthesis is xylosylation of certain serine residues of the core protein. A specific(More)
Heparan sulfate, a cell surface bound glycosaminoglycan polysaccharide, has been implicated in numerous biological functions. Heparan sulfate molecules are highly complex and diverse, yet deceivingly look simple and similar, rendering structure--function correlation tedious. Current chromatographic and mass spectrometric techniques have limitations for(More)
Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) play vital roles in every step of tumor progression allowing cancer cells to proliferate, escape from immune response, invade neighboring tissues, and metastasize to distal sites away from the primary site. Several cancers including breast, lung, brain, pancreatic, skin, and colorectal cancers show aberrant modulation(More)
Heparin is a highly sulfated polysaccharide that serves biologically relevant roles as an anticoagulant and anticancer agent. While it is well-known that modification of heparin's sulfation pattern can drastically influence its ability to bind growth factors and other extracellular molecules, very little is known about the cellular uptake of heparin and the(More)