Balachandran Manavalan

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Toll-like receptors (TLRs) belong to a class of pattern-recognition receptors that play an important role in host defense against pathogens by recognizing a wide variety of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Besides driving inflammatory responses, TLRs also regulate cell proliferation and survival by expanding useful immune cells and(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a central role in the innate immune response by recognizing conserved structural patterns in a variety of microbes. TLRs are classified into six families, of which TLR7 family members include TLR7, 8, and 9, which are localized to endolysosomal compartments recognizing viral infection in the form of foreign nucleic acids. In(More)
INTRODUCTION The immune response is mediated via two parallel immune components, innate and adaptive, whose effector functions are highly integrated and coordinated for the protection of the human body against invading pathogens and transformed cells. The discovery of pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs), most notably toll-like receptors (TLRs), in innate(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are pattern recognition receptors that recognize pathogens based on distinct molecular signatures. The human (h)TLR1, 2, 6 and 10 belong to the hTLR1 subfamilies, which are localized in the extracellular regions and activated in response to diverse ligand molecules. Due to the unavailability of the hTLR10 crystal structure, the(More)
Cytoplasmic IκB proteins are primary regulators that interact with NF-κB subunits in the cytoplasm of unstimulated cells. Upon stimulation, these IκB proteins are rapidly degraded, thus allowing NF-κB to translocate into the nucleus and activate the transcription of genes encoding various immune mediators. Subsequent to translocation, nuclear IκB proteins(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are pattern recognition receptors that recognize conserved structures in pathogens, trigger innate immune responses, and prime antigen-specific adaptive immunity. Elucidation of crystal structures of TLRs interacting with their ligands such as TLR1-2 with triacylated lipopeptide, TLR2-6 with diacylated lipopeptide, TLR4-MD-2 with(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) activate a potent immunostimulatory response. There is clear evidence that overactivation of TLRs leads to infectious and inflammatory diseases. Recent biochemical studies have shown that the membrane-bound form of ST2 (ST2L), a member of the Toll-like/IL-1 receptor superfamily, negatively regulates MyD88-dependent TLR signaling(More)
A primary level of control for nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) is effected through its interactions with the inhibitor protein, inhibitor of kappa B (IκB). Several lines of evidence confirm the existence of multiple forms of IκB that appear to regulate NF-κB by distinct mechanisms. Therefore, we performed a comprehensive bioinformatics analysis to understand(More)
Nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) are multienzymatic, multidomain megasynthases involved in the biosynthesis of pharmaceutically important nonribosomal peptides. The peptaibol synthetase from Trichoderma virens (TPS) is an important member of the NRPS family that exhibits antifungal properties. The majority of the NRPSs terminate peptide synthesis(More)
IκBζ (inhibitor of NF-κB (nuclear factor κB) ζ) is a nuclear protein induced upon stimulation of toll-like receptors (TLRs) and interleukin-1 receptor. Induced IκBζ, especially its C-terminal ankyrin repeat domain (ARD), interacts with NF-κB in the nucleus, where it regulates the transcriptional activity of target genes. Recent studies have shown that human(More)
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