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A genome-scale genetic interaction map was constructed by examining 5.4 million gene-gene pairs for synthetic genetic interactions, generating quantitative genetic interaction profiles for approximately 75% of all genes in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A network based on genetic interaction profiles reveals a functional map of the cell in(More)
According to what we term the balance hypothesis, an imbalance in the concentration of the subcomponents of a protein-protein complex can be deleterious. If so, there are two consequences: first, both underexpression and overexpression of protein complex subunits should lower fitness, and second, the accuracy of transcriptional co-regulation of subunits(More)
Many disease states result from gene overexpression, often in a specific genetic context. To explore gene overexpression phenotypes systematically, we assembled an array of 5280 yeast strains, each containing an inducible copy of an S. cerevisiae gene, covering >80% of the genome. Approximately 15% of the overexpressed genes (769) reduced growth rate. This(More)
Why do proteins evolve at different rates? Advances in systems biology and genomics have facilitated a move from studying individual proteins to characterizing global cellular factors. Systematic surveys indicate that protein evolution is not determined exclusively by selection on protein structure and function, but is also affected by the genomic position(More)
Under laboratory conditions 80% of yeast genes seem not to be essential for viability. This raises the question of what the mechanistic basis for dispensability is, and whether it is the result of selection for buffering or an incidental side product. Here we analyse these issues using an in silico flux model of the yeast metabolic network. The model(More)
An increasing number of studies report that functional divergence in duplicated genes is accompanied by gene expression changes, although the evolutionary mechanism behind this process remains unclear. Our genomic analysis on the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae shows that the number of shared regulatory motifs in the duplicates decreases with evolutionary(More)
It is possible to infer aspects of an organism's lifestyle from its gene content. Can the reverse also be done? Here we consider this issue by modelling evolution of the reduced genomes of endosymbiotic bacteria. The diversity of gene content in these bacteria may reflect both variation in selective forces and contingency-dependent loss of alternative(More)
Numerous studies have considered the emergence of metabolic pathways, but the modes of recent evolution of metabolic networks are poorly understood. Here, we integrate comparative genomics with flux balance analysis to examine (i) the contribution of different genetic mechanisms to network growth in bacteria, (ii) the selective forces driving network(More)
Why are most genes dispensable? The impact of gene deletions may depend on the environment (plasticity), the presence of compensatory mechanisms (mutational robustness), or both. Here, we analyze the interaction between these two forces by exploring the condition-dependence of synthetic genetic interactions that define redundant functions and alternative(More)