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Although dendritic spikes are generally thought to be restricted to the distal apical dendrite, we know very little about the possible modulatory mechanisms that set the spatial limits of dendritic spikes. Our experiments demonstrated that high-frequency trains of backpropagating action potentials avoided filtering in the apical dendrite and initiated(More)
Although interactions between backpropagating action potentials and synaptic stimulations have been extensively studied in pyramidal neurons, dendritic propagation and the summation of these signals in interneurons are not nearly as well known. In this study, two-photon imaging was used to explore the basic properties of dendritic calcium signaling in CA1(More)
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) of the hippocampus have been thought to contribute to cognitive enhancement by cigarette smoking. Although positive modulation on cognitive functions is linked to the smoked, low-dose nicotine, the cellular correlate behind this modulation is unknown. It has been accepted that cellular mechanisms underlying plastic(More)
Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) belong to a family of ligand-gated channels closely related to but distinct from the muscle nAChRs. Recent progress in neurochemical and pharmacological methods supports the hypothesis of presynaptically located nAChRs on axon terminals and indicates that the major effect of nAChR is the modulation rather(More)
This review attempts to organize the different aspects of nicotinic transmission in the context of nonsynaptic interactions. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) dominantly operate in the nonsynaptic mode in the central nervous system despite their ligand-gated ion-channel nature, which would otherwise be better suited for fast synaptic transmission.(More)
It was recently shown in the olfactory bulb (OB) that the response to olfactory stimulation might be related to local reinforcement mechanisms involved in discrimination of different odors. Therefore, it seemed interesting to study the effects of several drugs of abuse on the release of dopamine (DA) in the OB. Nicotine, amphetamine,(More)
The precise role of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in central cognitive processes still remains incompletely understood almost 150 years after its initial discovery. Central nAChRs are activated by acetylcholine, which functions in the extracellular space as a nonsynaptic messenger. Recently, a novel concept in the nAChR mode of operation has(More)
Although the role of Na(+) in several aspects of Ca(2+) regulation has already been shown, the exact mechanism of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) increase resulting from an enhancement in the persistent, non-inactivating Na(+) current (I(Na,P)), a decisive factor in certain forms of epilepsy, has yet to be resolved. Persistent Na(+)(More)
The alkaloid derivative vinpocetine (14-ethoxycarbonyl-(3alpha,16alpha-ethyl)-14,15-eburnamine; Cavinton) has a well known beneficial effect on brain function in hypoxic and ischemic conditions. While it increases CNS blood flow and improves cellular metabolism, relatively little is known about vinpocetine's underlying molecular mechanisms on the single(More)
In humans, serotonin (5-HT) has been implicated in numerous physiological and pathological processes in the peripheral auditory system. Dopamine (DA), another transmitter of the lateral olivocochlear (LOC) efferents making synapses on cochlear nerve dendrites, controls auditory nerve activation and protects the sensory nerve against overactivation. Using in(More)