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Complement receptor 1 (CR1, CD35) and complement receptor 2 (CR2, CD21) have been implicated as regulators of B-cell activation. We explored the role of these receptors in the development of humoral immunity by generating CR1- and CR2-deficient mice using gene-targeting techniques. These mice have normal basal levels of IgM and of IgG isotypes. B- and(More)
In previous studies we have demonstrated that mouse Crry/p65 regulates complement component C3 deposition on self membranes, a functional property that both human decay-accelerating factor (DAF) and membrane cofactor protein (MCP) exhibit. We have proposed that Crry/p65 has a similar biologic role in mouse as MCP and perhaps DAF and is the mouse analogue of(More)
Rac2 is a hematopoietic-specific GTPase acting as a molecular switch to mediate both transcriptional activation and cell morphological changes. We have examined the effect of Rac2 deficiency during T cell activation. In Rac2(-/-) T cells, proliferation was reduced upon stimulation with either plate-bound anti-CD3 or T cell receptor-specific antigen. This(More)
PGs play key regulatory roles in inflammation and immunity. PGD2, released from mast cells and Th2 cells during allergic responses, has recently been shown to target a novel receptor, chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed TH2 cells (CRTH2), in addition to the classic PGD (DP) receptor. CRTH2 is expressed on Th2 cells and eosinophils and(More)
Cellular hypoxia response is regulated at the level of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) activity. A number of recently identified oxygen sensors are HIF-modifying enzymes that respond to low oxygen by altering HIF modification and thus lead to its activation. In addition to the HIF proline hydroxylases and asparagine hydroxylases, ARD1 is recently described(More)
The differentiation of naive CD4(+) T cells into either proinflammatory Th1 or proallergic Th2 cells strongly influences autoimmunity, allergy, and tumor immune surveillance. We previously demonstrated that beta1,6GlcNAc-branched complex-type (N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase V (Mgat5)) N-glycans on TCR are bound to galectins, an interaction that reduces TCR(More)
Differentiation of Th cells from naive precursors is a dynamic process that involves multiple transcription factors acting at specific time points to regulate gene expression. In this study we show that the homeobox transcription factor Hlx is up-regulated early in Th1 cell differentiation. Mice constitutively expressing an Hlx transgene driven by a CD4(More)
Like man, mouse has evolved a unique set of regulatory proteins which provide protection from complement-mediated damage to self membranes. The recently described mouse protein Crry/p65 has been shown to inhibit classical complement pathway C3 deposition on cell membranes in which it is expressed. In two distinct experimental systems, we now further(More)
The global gene expression profiling of early T helper (Th) 1 and Th2 differentiation reveals that this process can be divided into two stages, activation and differentiation. The activation stage is manifested in coordinated mobilization of the replication machinery, a process that we hypothesize may be responsible for establishing genomewide opening of(More)
We have created a new transgenic model in which the human Epstein-Barr virus receptor, CR2 (CD21), has been expressed in pancreatic beta-cells. Mice derived from three transgenic founders bred into H-2b (C57BL/6) or H-2k (CBA) genetic backgrounds did not become spontaneously diabetic. After transplantation of CR2-expressing islets under the kidney capsule(More)