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Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is caused by the absence of paternally expressed, maternally silenced genes at 15q11-q13. We report four individuals with truncating mutations on the paternal allele of MAGEL2, a gene within the PWS domain. The first subject was ascertained by whole-genome sequencing analysis for PWS features. Three additional subjects were(More)
Loss of genome-wide methylation is a common feature of cancer, and the degree of hypomethylation has been correlated with genomic instability. Global methylation of repetitive elements possibly arose as a defense mechanism against parasitic DNA elements, including retrotransposons and viral pathogens. Given the alterations of global methylation in both(More)
BACKGROUND Breast cancer in young women tends to have a natural history of aggressive disease for which rates of recurrence are higher than in breast cancers detected later in life. Little is known about the genetic pathways that underlie early-onset breast cancer. Here we report the discovery of DEAR1 (ductal epithelium-associated RING Chromosome 1), a(More)
BACKGROUND Previous studies have shown that MDM2 SNP309 and p53 codon 72 have modifier effects on germline P53 mutations, but those studies relied on case-only studies with small sample sizes. The impact of MDM4 polymorphism on tumor onset in germline mutation carriers has not previously been studied. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We analyzed 213 p53(More)
Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) is a rare familial cancer syndrome characterized by early cancer onset, diverse tumor types, and multiple primary tumors. Germ-line TP53 mutations have been identified in most LFS families. A high-frequency single-nucleotide polymorphism, SNP309 (rs2279744), in MDM2 was recently confirmed to be a modifier of cancer risk in several(More)
BACKGROUND The transcription factor TCF21 is involved in mesenchymal-to-epithelial differentiation and was shown to be aberrantly hypermethylated in lung and head and neck cancers. Because of its reported high frequency of hypermethylation in lung cancer, further characterization of the stages and types of nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that are(More)
Germline mutations in the tumor suppressor gene TP53 occur in the majority of families with Li-Fraumeni syndrome, who are at an increased risk for a wide spectrum of early onset cancers. Several genetic polymorphisms in TP53 modify its effect on cancer risk. While some studies indicate that the TP53 PIN3 deletion allele (D) accelerate tumor onset in(More)
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