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The major barrier to research and development of effective interventions for human noroviruses (HuNoVs) has been the lack of a robust and reproducible in vitro cultivation system. HuNoVs are the leading cause of gastroenteritis worldwide. We report the successful cultivation of multiple HuNoV strains in enterocytes in stem cell-derived, nontransformed human(More)
Norovirus infections commonly lead to outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis and spread quickly, resulting in many health and economic challenges prior to diagnosis. Rapid and reliable diagnostic tests are therefore essential to identify infections and to guide the appropriate clinical responses at the point-of-care. Existing tools, including RT-PCR and enzyme(More)
Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) can often cause chronic infections in solid organ and haematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) patients. Based on histopathological changes observed during HuNoV infections, the intestine is the presumed site of virus replication in patients; however, the cell types infected by HuNoVs remain unknown. The objective of this study(More)
Noroviruses (NoVs) commonly cause acute gastroenteritis outbreaks. Broadly reactive diagnostic assays are essential for rapid detection of NoV infections. We previously generated a panel of broadly reactive monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). We characterized MAb reactivities by use of virus-like particles (VLPs) from 16 different NoV genotypes (6 from genogroup(More)
Noroviruses are responsible for most acute nonbacterial epidemic outbreaks of gastroenteritis worldwide. To develop cross-reactive monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) for rapid identification of genogroup I and II (GI and GII) noroviruses (NoVs) in field specimens, mice were immunized with baculovirus-expressed recombinant virus-like particles (VLPs) corresponding(More)
The performance of a norovirus antigen detection assay was assessed using monoclonal antibody NV23 and single-chain antibody HJT-R3-A9 to identify both virus-like particles and virus-containing fecal samples. The detection of 25 different norovirus genotypes as recombinant virus-like particles or in clinical samples was dependent on virus or antigen(More)
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