Bahram Bahrami

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AIMS To investigate the effects of human gut micro-organisms on cytokine production by human intestinal cell lines. METHODS AND RESULTS Quantitative real-time PCR assays were developed to measure the production of pro-inflammatory (IL-1α, IL-6, IL-18 and TNFα) and anti-inflammatory (TGF-β1, TGF-β2, TGF-β3, IL-4 and IL-10) cytokines in HT-29 and Caco-2(More)
BACKGROUND Crohn's disease is an inflammatory illness in which the immune response against gut microorganisms is believed to drive an abnormal immune response. Consequently, modification of mucosal bacterial communities, and the immune effects they elicit, might be used to modify the disease state. AIM To investigate the effects of synbiotic consumption(More)
Sepsis is common in liver cirrhosis, and animal studies have shown the gut to be the principal source of infection, through bacterial overgrowth and translocation in the small bowel. A total of 33 patients were recruited into this study, 10 without cirrhosis and 23 with cirrhotic liver disease. Six distal duodenal biopsies were obtained and snap frozen for(More)
Fluorescence in situ hybridization was used to quantitate bacteria growing in a three-stage continuous culture system inoculated with human faeces, operated at two system retention times (60 and 20 h). Twenty-three different 16S rRNA gene oligonucleotide probes of varying specificities were used to detect bacteria. Organisms belonging to genera Bacteroides(More)
Bacteria belonging to the normal colonic microbiota are associated with the etiology of ulcerative colitis (UC). Although several mucosal species have been implicated in the disease process, the organisms and mechanisms involved are unknown. The aim of this investigation was to characterize mucosal biofilm communities over time and to determine the(More)
BACKGROUND Ageing can result in major changes in the composition and metabolic activities of bacterial populations in the large gut and an impaired immune system. AIM To investigate the effects of synbiotic consumption on the colonic microbiota, immune function and health status in older people. METHODS A randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled,(More)
Adherence of bacteria to epithelial cells is an important step in colonization and immune modulation in the large bowel. The aims of this study were to use a three-stage continuous-culture system (CCS) to investigate how environmental factors affect bacterial attachment to Caco-2 cells and modulation of cytokine expression by gut microorganisms, including a(More)
Complex and highly variable site-dependent bacterial ecosystems exist throughout the length of the human gastrointestinal tract. Until relatively recently, the majority of our information on intestinal microbiotas has come from studies on feces, or from aspirates taken from the upper gut. However, there is evidence showing that mucosal bacteria growing in(More)
Enteral feeding via a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube is required for nutritional support in patients with dysphagia. Enteral tube feeding bypasses the innate defence mechanisms in the upper gastrointestinal tract. This study examined the surface-associated microbial populations and immune response in the gastric and duodenal mucosae of eight(More)
The colonisation and establishment of the intestinal microbiota starts immediately at birth and is essential for the development of the intestine and the immune system. This microbial community gradually increases in number and diversity until the age of two or three years when it becomes a stable ecosystem resembling that of adults. This period constitutes(More)