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Research in autophagy continues to accelerate,(1) and as a result many new scientists are entering the field. Accordingly, it is important to establish a standard set of criteria for monitoring macroautophagy in different organisms. Recent reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose.(2,3) There are many useful and(More)
Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR), a frequent developmental defect of the enteric nervous system is due to loss-of-function mutations of RET, a receptor tyrosine kinase essential for the mediation of glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF)-induced cell survival. Instead, gain-of-function Cys mutations (e.g., Cys(609), Cys(620), and Cys(634)) of the same(More)
Susceptibility to Crohn's disease, a complex inflammatory disease, is influenced by common variants at many loci. The common exonic synonymous SNP (c.313C>T) in IRGM, found in strong linkage disequilibrium with a deletion polymorphism, has been classified as non-causative because of the absence of an alteration in the IRGM protein sequence or splice sites.(More)
Environmental exposures to cadmium (Cd) are a major cause of human toxicity. The kidney is the most sensitive organ; however, the natures of injuries and of adaptive responses have not been adequately investigated, particularly in response to environmental relevant Cd concentrations. In this study, rats received a daily ip injection of low CdCl₂ dose (0.3(More)
Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) plays a crucial role in rescuing neural crest cells from apoptosis during their migration in the foregut. This survival factor binds to the heterodimer GDNF family receptor alpha1/Ret, inducing the Ret tyrosine kinase activity. ret loss-of-function mutations result in Hirschsprung's disease, a frequent(More)
BACKGROUND Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is an enzyme upregulated by hypoxia during tumour development and progression. This study was conducted to assess if the expression of CAIX in tumour tissue and/or plasma can be a prognostic factor in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS Tissue microarrays containing 555 NSCLC tissue samples(More)
Although worldwide concerns have emerged about environmental factors that display carcinogenic and reprotoxic effects, little is known about the mechanism(s) by which these chemicals alter testicular function. Using the 42GPA9 Sertoli cell line, we recently reported that one widely used lipid-soluble pesticide, Lindane impairs gap junctional intercellular(More)
The clinical use of the antineoplastic drug cisplatin is limited by its deleterious nephrotoxic side effect. Cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity is associated with an increase in oxidative stress, leading ultimately to renal cell death and irreversible kidney dysfunction. Oxidative stress could be modified by the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance(More)
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) infection of T84 cells induces a decrease in transepithelial resistance, the formation of attaching and effacing (A/E) lesions, and cytokine production. The purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of EPEC to activate mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases in T84 cells and to correlate these signaling(More)
Degradation of signaling proteins is one of the most powerful tumor-suppressive mechanisms by which a cell can control its own growth. Here, we identify RHOA as the molecular target by which autophagy maintains genomic stability. Specifically, inhibition of autophagosome degradation by the loss of the v-ATPase a3 (TCIRG1) subunit is sufficient to induce(More)