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Research in autophagy continues to accelerate,(1) and as a result many new scientists are entering the field. Accordingly, it is important to establish a standard set of criteria for monitoring macroautophagy in different organisms. Recent reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose.(2,3) There are many useful and(More)
Degradation of signaling proteins is one of the most powerful tumor-suppressive mechanisms by which a cell can control its own growth. Here, we identify RHOA as the molecular target by which autophagy maintains genomic stability. Specifically, inhibition of autophagosome degradation by the loss of the v-ATPase a3 (TCIRG1) subunit is sufficient to induce(More)
Susceptibility to Crohn's disease, a complex inflammatory disease, is influenced by common variants at many loci. The common exonic synonymous SNP (c.313C>T) in IRGM, found in strong linkage disequilibrium with a deletion polymorphism, has been classified as non-causative because of the absence of an alteration in the IRGM protein sequence or splice sites.(More)
Macroautophagy (hereafter referred to as autophagy) has emerged as a key tumor suppressor pathway. During this process, the cytosolic constituents are sequestered into autophagosomes, which subsequently fuse with lysosomes to become autolysosomes where their contents are finally degraded. Although a reduced autophagy has been shown in human tumors or in(More)
The RET proto-oncogene encodes a Tyrosine Kinase Receptor (RTK) which plays an important function in the proliferation and/or differentiation of neuroectodermic cells. Germline mutation of a methionine to a threonine within the RET TK domain predisposes to the Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 2B (MEN 2B). It has been demonstrated that, unlike c-Ret, the(More)
Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR), a frequent developmental defect of the enteric nervous system is due to loss-of-function mutations of RET, a receptor tyrosine kinase essential for the mediation of glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF)-induced cell survival. Instead, gain-of-function Cys mutations (e.g., Cys(609), Cys(620), and Cys(634)) of the same(More)
Drug delivery nanosystems are currently used in human therapy. In preliminary studies we have observed that Eudragit RS nanoparticles, prepared by nanoprecipitation or double emulsion techniques, are cytotoxic for NR8383 rat macrophages. In this study, we expand our previous analysis and suggest that unloaded Eudragit RS nanoparticles prepared by(More)
Connexins, the constitutive proteins of gap junctions, are considered to be tumour suppressive agents and are often impaired in the tumourigenic processes. In the present study, the expression of connexin 43 (Cx43), which is involved in the control of spermatogenesis through Sertoli/germ cell coupling, has been investigated in human testicular seminoma(More)
Interest in biomarkers in the field of thoracic oncology is focused on the search for new robust tests for diagnosis (in particular for screening), prognosis and theragnosis. These biomarkers can be detected in tissues and/or cells, but also in biological fluids, mainly the blood. In this context, there is growing interest in the detection of circulating(More)
Degradation of signaling proteins is one of the most powerful tumor-suppressive mechanisms by which a cell can control its own growth, its survival, and its motility. Emerging evidence suggests that autophagy limits several signaling pathways by degrading kinases, downstream components, and transcription factors; however, this often occurs under stressful(More)