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Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) acts through TrkB, a receptor with kinase activity, and mitigates light-induced apoptosis in adult mouse rod photoreceptors. To determine whether TrkB signaling is necessary for rod development and function, we examined the retinas of mice lacking all isoforms of the TrkB receptor. Rod migration and differentiation(More)
We studied rod function in the chicken by recording corneal electroretinograms (ERGs). The following experiments were performed to demonstrate rod function during daytime: (1) determining the dark-adaptation function; (2) measuring the spectral sensitivity by a a-b-wave amplitude criterion in response to monochromatic flickering light of different(More)
To determine whether the photoreceptors change structurally and functionally during aging, and to analyze whether pigmentation in the retinal pigment epithelium might be a contributing factor. Young, adult, and aged C57BL/6 and Balb/c mice (1, 4, and 17 months of age) were housed under a 12-h light/12-h dark cycle, with an ambient light intensity at the eye(More)
The actions of dopamine are mediated by 5 or more receptor subtypes, any of which may be coupled by G-proteins to adenylate cyclase (D1-family: stimulatory, D2-family: inhibitory or no action). Postnatal ocular growth in the chick is a vision-dependent mechanism which involves D2-type receptors in either the retina or the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE).(More)
PURPOSE RPE65 is essential for the generation of 11-cis retinal. Rod photoreceptors in the RPE65-knockout (Rpe65(-/-)) mouse are known to degenerate slowly with age. This study was designed to examine cone photoreceptors and the expression of cone-specific genes in the Rpe65(-/-) mouse. METHODS Gene expression changes were identified by microarray and(More)
Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a trophic factor for noradrenergic (NE) neurons of the pontine nucleus locus coeruleus (LC). Decreased function of the LC-NE neurons has been found during normal aging and in neurodegenerative disorders. We have previously shown that GDNF participates in the differentiation of LC-NE neurons during(More)
PURPOSE To determine the effects of trkB deficiency in the mouse retina on photoreceptor development and retinal organization, in the absence of confounding systemic effects. METHODS Newborn mice that carried two null trkB alleles (trkB-/-) and their wild type (WT) littermates were used for retinal organ cultures. On Day 21, rod development was assessed(More)
PURPOSE To strengthen our understanding about the role of trkB in rod development by correlating functional and biochemical retinal phenotypes with levels of trkB expression in two independently created trkB transgenic lines. METHODS Juvenile mice that carried two hypomorphic trkB alleles (trkBfbz/fbz) expressing roughly 25% of normal trkB, and their(More)
PURPOSE RPE65 has been shown to be essential for the production of 11-cis retinal by the retinal pigment epithelium. Mutations in RPE65 are known to be associated with severe forms of early-onset retinal dystrophy. This project was designed to determine the amount of regenerable opsin in Rpe65-/- mice during development and aging, and to examine the(More)
Studies of form-deprivation myopia (FDM) in animal models have shown that postnatal ocular growth is regulated by the quality of patterned images on the retina. One of the major challenges in myopia research is to identify the biochemical mechanisms which translate retinal visual responses into signals that regulate scleral growth. Dopamine (DA) has been(More)