Babasaheb R. Sonawane

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Pharmacokinetics (PK) of xenobiotics can differ widely between children and adults due to physiological differences and the immaturity of enzyme systems and clearance mechanisms. This makes extrapolation of adult dosimetry estimates to children uncertain, especially at early postnatal ages. While there is very little PK data for environmental toxicants in(More)
Genetic polymorphisms are increasingly recognized as sources of variability not only in toxicokinetic but also in toxicodynamic response to environmental agents. XRCC1 is involved in base excision repair (BER) of DNA; it has variant genotypes that are associated with modified repair function. This analysis focuses on four polymorphisms: three in the coding(More)
The population of the United States is aging, and an ever-increasing number of Americans are afflicted with neurodegenerative diseases. Because the pathogenesis of many of these diseases remains unknown, we must consider that environmental factors may play a causal role. This review provides an overview of the epidemiologic evidence for environmental(More)
Parkinson disease (PD) and Alzheimer disease (AD), the two most common neurodegenerative disorders in American adults, are of purely genetic origin in a minority of cases and appear in most instances to arise through interactions among genetic and environmental factors. In this article we hypothesize that environmental exposures in early life may be of(More)
Formaldehyde is widely used in the United States and other countries. Occupational and environmental exposures to formaldehyde may be associated with an increased risk of leukemia in exposed individuals. However, risk assessment of formaldehyde and leukemia has been challenging due to inconsistencies in human and animal studies and the lack of a known(More)
Glutathione transferases (GST) catalyze the conjugation of glutathione (GSH) with electrophiles, many of which may otherwise interact with protein or DNA. In select cases such as halogenated solvents, GST-mediated conjugation may lead to a more toxic or mutagenic metabolite. Polymorphisms that exert substantial effects on GST function were noted in human(More)
Prostate cancer has the highest prevalence of any nonskin cancer in the human body, with similar likelihood of neoplastic foci found within the prostates of men around the world regardless of diet, occupation, lifestyle, or other factors. Essentially all men with circulating androgens will develop microscopic prostate cancer if they live long enough. This(More)
In recent years there has been an increasing focus in environmental risk assessment on children as a potentially susceptible population. There also has been growing recognition of the need for a systematic approach for organizing, evaluating, and incorporating the available data on children's susceptibilities in risk assessments. In this article we present(More)
Children's responses to environmental toxicants will be affected by the way in which their systems absorb, distribute, metabolize, and excrete chemicals. These toxicokinetic factors vary during development, from in utero where maternal and placental processes play a large role, to the neonate in which emerging metabolism and clearance pathways are key(More)
Pharmacology and toxicology share a common interest in pharmacokinetic data, especially as it is available in pediatric populations. These data have been critical to the clinical pharmacologist for many years in designing age-specific dosing regimens. Now they are being used increasingly by toxicologists to understand the ontogeny of physiologic parameters(More)