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How Many Species Are There on Earth and in the Ocean?
It is shown that the higher taxonomic classification of species follows a consistent and predictable pattern from which the total number of species in a taxonomic group can be estimated, and when applied to all domains of life, it predicts ∼8.7 million eukaryotic species globally. Expand
Rapid worldwide depletion of predatory fish communities
The analysis suggests that management based on recent data alone may be misleading, and provides minimum estimates for unexploited communities, which could serve as the 'missing baseline' needed for future restoration efforts. Expand
Response to Comments on "Impacts of Biodiversity Loss on Ocean Ecosystem Services"
It is shown that globally declining fisheries catch trends cannot be explained by random processes and are consistent with declining stock abundance trends, and may provide a benchmark against which to assess the effectiveness of conservation measures. Expand
Rebuilding Global Fisheries
Current trends in world fisheries are analyzed from a fisheries and conservation perspective, finding that 63% of assessed fish stocks worldwide still require rebuilding, and even lower exploitation rates are needed to reverse the collapse of vulnerable species. Expand
Collapse and Conservation of Shark Populations in the Northwest Atlantic
Open-area models highlight priority areas for shark conservation, and the need to consider effort reallocation and site selection if marine reserves are to benefit multiple threatened species. Expand
Ecosystem recovery after climatic extremes enhanced by genotypic diversity.
It is shown that genotypic diversity can replace the role of species diversity in a species-poor coastal ecosystem, and it may buffer against extreme climatic events, and the importance of maintaining genetic as well as species diversity to enhance ecosystem resilience in a world of increasing uncertainty. Expand
Predicting ecological consequences of marine top predator declines.
The consequences of marine predator declines are outlined and an integrated predictive framework that includes risk effects is proposed, which appear to be strongest for long-lived prey species and when resources are abundant. Expand
Global patterns and predictors of marine biodiversity across taxa
Two major patterns emerged: coastal species showed maximum diversity in the Western Pacific, whereas oceanic groups consistently peaked across broad mid-latitudinal bands in all oceans, and changes in ocean temperature, in conjunction with other human impacts, may ultimately rearrange the global distribution of life in the ocean. Expand
Impacts of Biodiversity Loss on Ocean Ecosystem Services
Human-dominated marine ecosystems are experiencing accelerating loss of populations and species, with largely unknown consequences. We analyzed local experiments, long-term regional time series, andExpand
Patterns and ecosystem consequences of shark declines in the ocean.
It is shown that the high natural diversity and abundance of sharks is vulnerable to even light fishing pressure, and that large sharks can exert strong top-down forces with the potential to shape marine communities over large spatial and temporal scales. Expand