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Cellular reservoirs of HIV-1 and their role in viral persistence.
TLDR
Cell populations of the monocyte-macrophage lineage, which originate in the bone marrow, are of particular importance in HIV-1 persistence due to their ability to cross the blood-brain barrier and spread HIV- 1 infection in the immunoprivileged central nervous system (CNS). Expand
Breaking down the barrier: The effects of HIV-1 on the blood–brain barrier
TLDR
It is proposed in this review that the dysregulation of the BBB during and after neuroinvasion is a critical component of the neuropathogenic process and that Dysregulation of this protective barrier is caused by a combination of viral and host factors including secreted viral proteins, components of the inflammatory process, the aging process, therapeutics, and drug or alcohol abuse. Expand
Inactivation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 by nonoxynol-9, C31G, or an alkyl sulfate, sodium dodecyl sulfate.
TLDR
These studies suggest that C31G and SDS may be attractive candidates for human trials as topical microbicides effective against HIV-1 transmission since both function at concentrations that provide effective viral inactivation with low levels of cytotoxicity. Expand
Regulation of HIV-1 transcription in cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage
TLDR
The structural and functional features of the cis-acting elements upstream and downstream of the transcriptional start site in the retroviral LTR and the impact of genetic variation on LTR-directed transcription during the course of retrovirus disease are reviewed. Expand
Human T cell leukemia virus type I-induced disease: pathways to cancer and neurodegeneration.
TLDR
A model of HTLV-I-induced disease progression is presented, integrating information regarding the role of several host and viral factors in the genesis of both neoplasia and neurologic disease induced following HTLV -I infection, focusing specifically on differential viral invasion into the bone marrow (BM) and the influence of this event on the virus-specific CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response that is initiated following HT LV infection. Expand
DC-SIGN Mediates Cell-Free Infection and Transmission of Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 by Dendritic Cells
TLDR
It is suggested that DC-SIGN plays a critical role in HTLV-1 binding, transmission, and infection, thereby providing an attractive target for the development of antiretroviral therapeutics and microbicides. Expand
Antiviral potentials of medicinal plants
TLDR
Potential antiviral properties of medicinal plants against a diverse group of viruses are described, and screening the potential of plants possessing broad-spectrum antiviral effects against emerging viral infections is suggested. Expand
Secretion of the Human T Cell Leukemia Virus Type I Transactivator Protein Tax*
TLDR
Cytoplasmic Tax was demonstrated to localize to organelles associated with the cellular secretory process including the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex, and full-length Tax was secreted from both baby hamster kidney cells and a human kidney tumor cell line, suggesting that Tax enters the secretory pathway in a leaderless manner. Expand
CD4-independent infection of human neural cells by human immunodeficiency virus type 1
TLDR
The results indicate that CD4 is not the receptor for HIV-1 infection of the glioblastoma line U373-MG, medulloblastomas line MED 217, or primary human fetal neural cells. Expand
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