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PD-1 expression on HIV-specific T cells is associated with T-cell exhaustion and disease progression
The data indicate that the immunoregulatory PD-1/PD-L1 pathway is operative during a persistent viral infection in humans, and define a reversible defect in HIV-specific T-cell function.
Vigorous HIV-1-specific CD4+ T cell responses associated with control of viremia.
In individuals who control viremia in the absence of antiviral therapy, polyclonal, persistent, and vigorous HIV-1-specific CD4+ T cell proliferative responses were present, resulting in the elaboration of interferon-gamma and antiviral beta chemokines.
Latent infection of CD4+ T cells provides a mechanism for lifelong persistence of HIV-1, even in patients on effective combination therapy
Combination therapy for HIV-1 infection can reduce plasma virus to undetectable levels, indicating that prolonged treatment might eradicate the infection. However, HIV-1 can persist in a latent form…
Hepatitis C virus infection.
The institution of blood-screening measures in developed countries has decreased the risk of transfusion-associated hepatitis to a negligible level, but new cases continue to occur mainly as a result of injection-drug use and, to a lesser degree, through other means of percutaneous or mucous-membrane exposure.
HIV-1 Nef protein protects infected primary cells against killing by cytotoxic T lymphocytes
- K. Collins, Benjamin K. Chen, S. Kalams, B. Walker, D. Baltimore
- Biology, MedicineNature
- 22 January 1998
It is found that CTLs inefficiently lysed primary cells infected with HIV-1 if the viral nef gene product was expressed and Nef protected infected cells by reducing the epitope density on their surface.
HIV evolution: CTL escape mutation and reversion after transmission
Data show that the process of accumulation of escape mutations within HIV is not inevitable, and complex epitope- and residue-specific selection forces, including CTL-mediated positive selection pressure and virus-mediated purifying selection, operate in tandem to shape HIV evolution at the population level.
Innate partnership of HLA-B and KIR3DL1 subtypes against HIV-1
The various epistatic effects observed here for common, distinct KIR3DL1 and HLA-B Bw4 combinations are unprecedented with regard to any pair of genetic loci in human disease, and indicate that NK cells may have a critical role in the natural history of HIV infection.
Sequence and Structural Convergence of Broad and Potent HIV Antibodies That Mimic CD4 Binding
Anti-HIV broadly neutralizing antibodies with similar specificities and modes of binding were found in multiple HIV-infected individuals, and cloned 576 new HIV antibodies from four unrelated individuals to determine whether they are part of a larger group of related molecules.
Analysis of Successful Immune Responses in Persons Infected with Hepatitis C Virus
A strong and persistent CTL response in resolving acute HCV infection is demonstrated, and rationale to explore immune augmentation as a therapeutic intervention in chronic HCv infection is provided.
Dominant influence of HLA-B in mediating the potential co-evolution of HIV and HLA
Analysis of class I restricted CD8+ T-cell responses against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) indicates that the principal focus of HIV-specific activity is at the HLA-B locus, consistent with the observation that B alleles evolve more rapidly than A alleles.